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    Cognitive-affective model of acceptance of mobile phone advertising
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2016-12-05) Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Ekonomická fakulta
    There are high expectations for mobile phone marketing and mobile advertising. In various European markets, such as the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy, mobile marketing campaigns have registered response rates of up to 47% among their target audience. The main aim of this paper is to validate a cognitive-affective model of acceptance of mobile phone advertising that integrates the utilitarian perspective through the technology acceptance model, the affective dimension through emotions, and the moderating role of the normative reference group (NRG). This model was tested with structural equation modelling in a sample of 612 individuals (R2 of 82.4%). To analyse the moderating effect of the NRG, a sequential cluster analysis was applied, generating two groups of users: independent and influenced. A multi-sample analysis was then performed. The results showed the advisability of considering attitudes towards mobile advertising to be a variable shaped by conceptually complementary cognitive (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) and affective dimensions (positive emotions and negative emotions). Positive emotions had the strongest effect on the formation of this attitude. Negative emotions and cognitive dimensions had a few effect for the acceptance of mobile advertising. With regard to the moderating role of the NRG, among independent users, positive emotions affected the attitude more intensely and a stronger positive relationship was found between this attitude and the intention to receive advertising. No differences were found between independent users and users influenced by their NRGs with regard to the formation of attitudes due to ease of use, perceived usefulness or negative emotions. The paper thus provides a comprehensive analysis of the acceptance of mobile advertising that integrates both cognitive-affective views and the moderating role of the NRG with implications for management.
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    Success evaluation model for project management
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2016-12-05) Doskočil, Radek; Škapa, Stanislav; Olšová, Petra; Ekonomická fakulta
    The article presents an expert fuzzy model for evaluation of the project success rate. The model is implemented with the use of fuzzy logic. First, fundamental theoretical principles related to the problems of project success rate, fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are introduced, after which a fuzzy model for project success rate evaluation, including partial sub-models, is presented in the form of a case study which represents the main goal of the article. The fuzzy model is implemented in the MATLAB software environment with the use of the Fuzzy Logic Toolbox application, where it is also verified and further specified. The fuzzy model consists of six input variables which are divided according to their character into three categories in each block (RB1, RB2, RB3) and are separately evaluated. Partial outputs from the blocks (RB1, RB2, RB3) are simultaneously inputs for block RB4, from which there is a single output variable – project success (PS). The RB1 rule block evaluates the situation from the point of view of the state of the project. The RB2 rule block evaluates the total value of project risk. The RB3 rule block evaluates project quality. The RB4 rule block evaluates the total project success rate. Experimenting with the fuzzy model allows simulation of the uncertainty that is always involved in projects. The case study introduces an overall diagram of the fuzzy model, the input and output variables, including their attributes, and the evaluation rules of the four rule blocks. The proposed fuzzy model is used to evaluate project success primarily in the implementation phase, then repeatedly after each phase of the project is completed. This provides project managers with a tool that allows relatively rapid evaluation of the success of the project and the opportunity of applying appropriate measures in good time if necessary.
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    Do the data on municipal expenditures in the Czech Republic imply incorrectness in their management?
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2016-12-05) Půček, Milan; Plaček, Michal; Ochrana, František; Ekonomická fakulta
    Limited public resources confront public administration bodies with the question of how to handle them in an economically rational manner. Audit of public expenditures necessitates an ongoing creation and modification of an effective control system. Such a system is made up by subsystems of a formal (accounting and documentation) and economic control, responsible for monitoring the efficiency, effectiveness and economy of managing public expenditures. Significance of such interconnection rests in the fact that the formal control may signal possible improper management of public expenditures. This may become a stimulus for the economic control subsystem to verify the effectiveness, efficiency and economy of outlaid expenditures. For identification purposes related to potential accounting and record-keeping incorrectnesses in the management of public expenditures is proposed adoption of Benford’s Law (Benford’s test). Benford’s test is applied on municipal expenditure data for the year 2012. Data represent sums of public expenditures in the structure of the statement of budgetary execution and control specified by the Regulation of the Ministry of Finance of the Czech Republic No. 323/2002 Coll. For the data analysis there were used statistical methods, hypothesis testing, linear regressions and comparisons. Although the empirical analysis points at a limited use of Benford’s test in the conditions of municipal expenditures in the Czech Republic (mainly due to the instability of results and unavailability of suitable data), the analysis showed that Benford’s test can be adopted as a supporting tool, suitable for building into the control system of public expenditures. It is one of the ways to increase the effectiveness of a complex control of public expenditures.
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    The paradoxes of creativity management
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2016-12-05) Kačerauskas, Tomas; Ekonomická fakulta
    Creativity is a very important aspect of market economy. Creativity is an ambivalent and contradictory phenomenon that covers both positive and negative aspects. As a result, management of creativity faces some paradoxes. The paper deals with 10 paradoxes of creativity management including one grand paradox (GP) and nine minor paradoxes (MP). By stimulating creativity, the managers risk to provoke the disobedience for their instructions including an instruction to develop creativity (GP). Successful period of an organization is an obstacle to develop the creative ideas (MP1). A radical implementation of creative ideas threatens the identity of organization (MP2). Creativity provokes the conflicts in organization (MP3). Every inventor or innovator tries to negate his (her) social environment that has educated and stimulated him (her) (MP4). Although hard management kills creativity, the latter needs sometimes very hard decisions (MP5). The worse the results are, the more creative the decisions in organization are (MP6). Organizations should manage both quantity and quality (MP7). Organization needs not only management of knowledge but also management of ignorance and naiveté (MP8). The managers should forget the past success of organization and think about future end of it (MP9). The main aim of this paper is to describe these paradoxes. Another aim is to present the different approaches towards creativity management. Finally, the paper seeks to dethrone a naive attitude that creativity in economy solves all possible problems. The biggest challenge to the management is the very creativity.
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    Failure prediction from the investors’ view by using financial ratios. Lesson from Romania
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2016-12-05) Achim, Monica Violeta; Borlea, Sorin Nicolae; Găban, Lucian Vasile; Ekonomická fakulta
    The purpose of our study is to identify which financial indicators have a significant impact on the probability of Romanian companies’ bankruptcy risk from the investors’ point of view by studying the impact on the probability of shares delisting from the stock exchange. The research is conducted on a sample of 16 failed and 21 non-failed non-financial companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange between 2002 and 2012. The Logit analysis is used for identifying the variables that are significant and have predictive power on distress likelihood. By using 12 main financial ratios, we estimate three alternative Logit models for determining their signs, significance, predictive power, efficiency of fit tests. The first model provides the highest explanatory power. Three variables such as Flexibility ratio (FLEX), Assets turnover (ASTU) and Current assets turnover (CASTU) are found to be significant determinants for stock exchange delisting. These three variables provide 52.59% of correct prediction of bankruptcy risk. The percentage for correctly classified observations for the fitted Logit model is of 83.33%. Moreover, this research attempts to reveal the changes that may appear among bankruptcy predictors given that the bankruptcy risk model is developed from the investors’ point of view and not from that of a simple decision-making person. For a stock market investor, bankruptcy already starts at the stage of delisting the company because the investment was strongly compromised, whether or it continues its activity or not. Orientation towards investors when predicting bankruptcy risk is the main element of originality that our research adds to the scientific achievements in bankruptcy, until this moment.