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    A grey multi-objective linear model to find critical path of a project by using time, cost, quality and risk parameters
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Mahdiraji, Hannan Amoozad; Hajiagha, Seyed Hossein Razavi; Hashemi, Shide Sadat; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; Ekonomická fakulta
    A project is a series of related activities which are organized to reach a defined goal or satisfy a certain need. Project management plays an important role in different fields of human life. The amount of resources spent on a project renders management of these resources a sensitive task. Determinant factors’ influencing the payoffs of a project mainly encompasses time, cost, quality and also the risk of each activity. Therefore, a critical path method is presented to find the longest path of a project completion time in order to draw managers’ attention to the critical activities. Critical path method is a well-known and widely accepted method to find the critical activities of a project and to concentrate on them for accomplishment of the project without any deviation. Classical critical path methods usually consider only a time factor, but growing complexity and importance of projects entail cost, quality and risk as the critical factors to be considered in project management. Due to the unavailability of certain information relating each factor of each activity, considering a novel approach to deal with such vague and unstable situations is really a controversial issue. Thus, another challenge of the project management contains uncertainty for approximating time, cost, quality, and risk factors of the project activities. Taking into account these two challenges, a grey multi-objective critical path model is proposed in this paper, where parameters of the activities are evaluated as grey numbers, dealing with their uncertainty. Meanwhile, a goal programming based method is illustrated to solve the problem of critical path identification, considering four considerable criteria including time, cost, quality, and risk. Eventually, a numerical example is represented to address applicability of the proposed method.
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    Information management tools for implementing an effective enterprise business continuity strategy
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Podaras, Athanasios; Antlová, Klára; Motejlek, Jiří; Ekonomická fakulta
    The current work aims to the development of the Business Continuity Testing Points method which can help both IT as well as business managers define an efficient business continuity strategy. The BCTP method stems from the UML Use Case Points theory which is a practically tested and accepted approach to SW complexity estimation. The Use Case Points methodology was selected as the theory behind the construction of the BCTP model, due to the fact that firstly, both theories share the requirement analysis task and secondly because complexity of information systems is strongly related to their recovery in cases of their unexpected failovers. In the Use Case Points theory IT analysts perform software requirement analysis by executing various business scenarios. The BCTP theory, on the other hand, is constructed to support the analysis of IT system recovery requirements, by executing multiple efficient recovery scenarios. The method is a new approach to the objective determination of the Recovery Time Effort of a business function in comparison to the Rational Time Objective and the Maximum Acceptable Outage, which are defined with regard to the Impact Value Level of the function. The most critical functions of the enterprise should be included in the Minimum Business Continuity Objective (MBCO) concept. MBCO refers to vital business functions without which the enterprise is not able to perform its basic operations. The Recovery Time Effort of a given business function is affected by multiple Technical, Environmental and Unexpected factors with precise weights and assessment values. Recovery exercises should be based on scenarios which include the unexpected factors that may delay the recovery process. The derived exercise results are proposed as drivers for the reassessment of the criticality of a business function.
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    Decomposition of unemployment: the case of the Visegrad group countries
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Tvrdoň, Michal; Ekonomická fakulta
    Generally, output measured by real gross domestic product declines and the unemployment rate rises during the economic crisis. This relationship was confirmed in the past several crises. However, the impact of economic downturns on structural unemployment will depend on many factors. The aim of the paper is to decomposite unemployment and we try to estimate the rate of structural unemployment. We also made an effort to determine the effects of the crisis on economic performance and functioning of the labour market in the Visegrad group countries. The analysis showed considerable sensitivity of these economies to the development of the external environment (except Poland), mainly through an export channel – the most affected was an industry sector, especially automotive industry. It seems to be important to have more diversified structure of the economy, mainly the exports. Quarterly data from the Eurostat LFS database in the period between 2000 and 2014 were applied. In order to estimate the trend of the unemployment rate´s development was used Hodrick-Prescott filter. Data show that all observed economies recorded a low unemployment rate in a pre-crisis period and they had to face worsened labour market performance during and after the crisis. Our results suggest that structural component seems to be the most important component of total unemployment. Moreover, it has decreased in these countries, except Hungary. We also compared our approach with an OECD approach which is based on employment of Kalman filter. Results suggest that both methods, although they are based on different processes, lead to analogous results.
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    Net promoter score integration into the enterprise performance measurement and management system – a way to performance methods development
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Faltejsková, Olga; Dvořáková, Lilia; Hotovcová, Barbora; Ekonomická fakulta
    In the current global environment the enterprise performance can be defined the best as the success on the market, the ability to succeed in the competition and to find the possibility for further growth in the constantly changing, unstable environment. In the view of these conditions performance has to be seen as a multicriterial quantity. The takings growth becomes its significant factor conditioned by the satisfaction of the customer who is bound to the product and the producer in the long-term. It creates the customer’s loyalty as the basis of the enterprise prosperity. In the customer-oriented market conditions marketing is becoming an important part of management in the new holistic concept. The approximation of marketing principles with the enterprise financial management brings new possibilities in enterprise performance measurement. The customer satisfaction measurement and its integration into the performance-oriented systems of business management currently gets among the main points of interest. The paper presents the research results in the area of Net Promoter Score (NPS) integration into the enterprise performance measurement and management with the target to develop performance measurement and management methods in the paradigm of the 21st century. Critical analysis and customer satisfaction and loyalty measurement and management evaluation was performed based on the immediate customer experience principles in the context of modern methods of enterprise performance measurement and management. The results of the performed empiric research proved and demonstrated the expediency of NPS use for customers‘ satisfaction measurement in the brewing industry area and on the beer market in the Czech Republic, including the confirmation of suitability and significance of NPS integration into the financial performance measurement system based on the economic value added method.
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    Transformation of retailing in post-communist Slovakia in the context of globalization
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Križan, František; Bilková, Kristína; Kita, Pavol; Siviček, Tomáš; Ekonomická fakulta
    Retailing is a form of exchange, which mediates the movement of goods between the manufacturer, their transfer and sales to the phase of the field of final consumption. For the past 25 years significant transformation processes have been identified in the retailing of post-communist countries that have both an economic and also spatial character. The aim of this paper is to analyze retailing in Slovakia and its development in the period of 25 years with specific attention paid to the transformation process. In the paper these processes are classified and defined in the time and space context. The conclusions of the study show that in Slovakia some trends in globalization processes can be identified, which are typical in other developed countries. These changes become evident particularly after 1989. The process of atomization of the retail is the first analysed process and it is typical for the transition period from the centrally-planned economy to the market economy. The further processes are related to manifestations of globalization in the Slovakian retail. Those are the processes of internationalization, cooperation, and concentration in the retail. By analyzing all of the changes in the Slovak retail it is then possible to identify several stages of transformation. The characteristics of the globalization processes in the retail sector are more intense in urban areas than in rural. For Slovakia, there is a delayed transition in the processes in comparison with neighbouring countries. The size of the market determines the intensity of the manifestations of the globalization processes. The ultimate consolidation of retailers in Slovakia can be categorized as transformation process in the initial stage of development.