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- ItemClassifications of environmental quality effects: The case of canadian cities(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Giannias, Dimitrios; Sfakianaki, Eleni; Ekonomická fakultaAmenities are goods and services that make certain locations attractive for living and working. Quality of life on the other hand can be perceived as an expression of well-being and its importance is demonstrated by a number of publications that have been developed and rank quality of life across cities and states based on their observable characteristics. Amenities’ assessments are employed in order to produce an index to rate quality of life. It is increasingly accepted that well-being cannot be entirely based on measures of income, wealth and consumption. Other indicators more qualitative (i.e. environment) should be considered. In the broader context, quality of life measures traditional economic goods such as food and accomodation but also more qualitative factors such as environmental and social (i.e. fresh air, low criminality). Environmental factors located in a given place can be considered as part of the wealth of the region in which they are located. A classification of the effects of environmental quality on consumers’ utility and producers’ costs that is based on housing prices and income differentials is useful because it provides information about the relative attractiveness to them of the total bundle of environmental and other attributes indigenous to each region. A theory is presented for this kind of analysis and classifications producing a qualitative evaluation of cities. The methodology used a number of Canadidan cities as a case study. An amenity-productivity classification was produced and cities were eventually classified as Low/High Amenity and Low/High Productivity providing useful information as to their relative attractiveness to firms and households.
- ItemPodniky se zahraniční účastí v Libereckém kraji. Výsledky dotazníkového šetření(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Potužáková, Zuzana; Demel, Jaroslav; Ekonomická fakultaForeign direct investment (FDI) influenced deeply the economic development of the transition economies after 1989. The Czech Republic is one of the leading recipients of the FDI in the CEE. The impact of the FDI is visible not only on national level but also on the regional level. Despite the fact that the Czech Republic belongs to the middle-size EU Member States, the regional development after 1989 differs distinctly. The article focuses on results of the questionnaire survey of the foreign-owned companies in Liberec region. The results are compared with the average values of the indicators for Liberec region. The aim of the article is to determine the motives of the investment, the structure of exported production, workforce development and employment of foreign workers in the companies that came to the Liberec Region as the FDI. We have also verified the hypothesis that the main reasons of the FDI entry were the low production costs and the investment incentives. According to the results of the questionnaire survey we can confirm only the first part of the hypothesis. The importance of the low production costs which were the most significant for almost 60% of the companies. Another essential factor for 50% companies was the qualified labor force. However, this does not corresponds with the education structure of the FDI workers, 62% of them achieved only basic education or secondary education without leaving examination. Anyway, the investment incentives were significant reason only for one company. According to our survey the FDI helped the region to reallocate the workforce form the previously dominating textile industry to nowadays dominating automotive sector. The other positive effect of the FDI is the employment of the lower qualified work force which has a worse position on the labor market than the highly qualified. Nevertheless it neither is important to emphasize that the positive effect of the FDI is nor based on the long-term factors.
- ItemSuccess evaluation of small and medium-sized enterprises in terms of their participation in the internationalzation process(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Kubíčková, Lea; Procházková, Lenka; Ekonomická fakultaIn context of discussions about the Czech foreign trade development, questions of the Czech enterprises’ ability to participate in the internationalization process are often considered. The main aim of this article is to present various points of view on the globalization and enterprise internationalization process with a special accent on the analysis of the specifics in the internationalization process of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Those enterprises represent a significant part of the Czech economy because they considerably contribute to the creation of vacancies and GDP; they are a source of innovation and technological progress and the factors of their successful functioning in foreign trades differ from the large-sized enterprises. For this reason, SME shave been more frequently analysed in an effort to identify key factors, which involve their ability to succeed in international activities. Those factors could positively influence other SMEs in their plans to participate in the foreign trade. However, not all the enterprises have equal conditions for entering the foreign market field. In some business spheres, the export of SMEs is supported, which is considerably helpful, mainly in case of enterprises with insufficient funds. Some of the other spheres facilitate access to the foreign market because of their sort of production. Besides analysing the internationalization process of SMEs, this article is also focused on identification of both key factors of success and risk factors of the process. Determinants of SMEs success in the foreign market were examined using several extensive researches among Czech small and medium-sized enterprises of various business spheres. Results of the research have produced interesting information. It was discovered that all SMEs, although they operate in different business spheres, share similar problems concerning the internationalization process. Key factors, which determine success of Czech small and medium-sized enterprises in the internationalization process, are analogous in spite of diverse business spheres, but nevertheless every particular branch has a strong effect on an opportunity and willingness of SMEs to participate in the internationalization process.
- ItemRedevelopment potential of brownfields: A-B-C classification and its practical application(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Doleželová, Lucie; Hadlač, Michal; Kadlecová, Milada; Polednik, Stanislav; Ekonomická fakultaBrownfields significantly influence the contemporary character of the majority of cities, towns and villages not only in the Czech Republic, but Europe wide. It is obvious that potential of individual brownfields to be redeveloped differs according to various factors. As a consequence of existence of thousands of brownfields classification of such sites has to be developed to enable their sorting and selecting for redevelopment. The majority of experts concerned with brownfields are familiar with the theoretical model of brownfield types A-B-C introduced by the Cabernet Project, funded by the European Union. This classification of brownfields according to their redevelopment potential could be applied in decision making on necessity of public funding for individual brownfields redevelopment projects. This proposal, however, has two caveats: The first one lies in the classification method used to sort brownfields into the individual categories. The second lies in applying the classification within the system of subvention programmes where regeneration has often different goals. This paper follows the theoretical debate on brownfields classification in its first part; the second part is devoted to analysis of the A-B-C model and its practical application on set of brownfields on the example of the South Moravian and Ústí Region (the Czech Republic). More than 20 various indicators were employed to evaluate redevelopment potential of studied brownfields
- ItemVyužití balanced scorecard a vliv jeho využívání na finanční výkonnost podniků v ČR(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Knápková, Adriana; Homolka, Lubor; Pavelková, Drahomíra; Ekonomická fakultaThe article aims to analyze the use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) concept in Czech enterprises and the effect of its use on the financial performance of companies. The article defines the BSC concept and its important shift from the basic system for measuring the performance of the BSC as a strategic tool for measuring and managing business and management performance. There are also analyzed the results of the empirical findings of foreign studies that examined the relationship between the use of BSC and financial performance of companies. An extensive questionnaire survey carried out by the Faculty of Management and Economics of TBU in Zlín (a total of 350 enterprises in the Czech Republic) revealed that the BSC is used by approximately 13% of enterprises. A company’s size affects the use of BSC, which was confirmed by chi-square, and therefore we can state that the use of BSC grows with a company’s size. Although the use of BSC in manufacturing and service-based businesses is higher than in trading companies, the use of the chi-square did not confirm the impact of company specialization on the use of BSC. The BSC concept is also more frequently used in companies established before 1990 than in those founded later, but not even in this case did the use of the chi-square verified the impact of company age on the use of BSC. It was also tested whether the use of BSC in corporate practice improves the financial performance of companies. As financial performance indicators were selected return on equity and return on assets. The testing was carried out by using Wilcoxon test. Although enterprises using the BSC are reaching higher mean profitability, the differences in the achieved performance can not be due to the results considered significant. The results are consistent with the results achieved by Ittner et al. , and Griffith and Neely . Different conclusions were then drawn by studies done by the following authors (Hoque and James, , Davis, Albright , Braam, Nijsen , Crabtree, DeBusk , DeGeuser, Mooraj, Oyon , which show that the concept of BSC use in the system for performance measurement and management is associated with higher performance. Using the Wilcoxon test, it was found that neither the level of satisfaction with the use of BSC has any effect on the financial performance of companies. There are specified benefits and limitations of this study in conclusion.