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    The intensity of the expression of mobbing in employees’ relations at lithuanian organizations
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Vveinhardt, Jolita; Štreimikienė, Dalia; Ekonomická fakulta
    The authors presents general review of the literature, presents the results of the empirical research on the expression intensity of mobbing in employees’ relations in organizations. The expression of mobbing in employees’ relations has been identified in the organizations of different activity type. The expression of mobbing in employees’ relations has been identified in the organizations of different activity type. When comparing organizations of private and public sectors, the tendency that the expression of mobbing is more intensive in the private sector, especially in economical activities of agriculture and mining as well as querying, manifests. The hypothesis that mobbing is not only psychological but also managerial problem has been confirmed; it is more relevant for organizations of the private sector in Lithuania. This is influenced by poorly developed management culture and the lack of managerial knowledge, which is characteristic for management personnel. Lithuania as well as other post-Soviet countries has not performed the researches on mobbing phenomenon broadly and deeply by emphasizing managerial reasons of the phenomenon. The researches on mobbing disclose the ‘sensitive’ areas, which influence the internal climate of national capital’s organizations, the development of their competitiveness and the improvement of the corporate country investment climate. The originality of this research is presupposed not only by the fact that the situation in private and public sectors has been surveyed but also that it has been tried to identify the spread of mobbing among different fields of professional activity. In the case of this research 21 fields of professional activity have been included. During the research higher than medium expression of mobbing has been identified in the field of people health care and social work, which consist of the organizations of both public and private capital (in which more significant mobbing intensity has been identified) in Lithuanian context. It would be relevant to elaborate the research in striving to disclose differences in the culture of organizations’ management.
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    The effect of the exchange rate on industry-level trade flows in Czechia
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Šimáková, Jana; Stavárek, Daniel; Ekonomická fakulta
    This paper is the first study to use the disaggregated data of the Czech foreign trade to examine the effect of exchange rate levels and volatility on trade flows. Czechia is the appropriate economy to study this phenomenon because it is heavily involved in foreign trade predominantly owned by international investors and has been applying a floating exchange rate arrangement for many years. We analyze the period from 1993 to 2013 and disaggregate the data according to trading partner and product category. While the effect of exchange rate level is examined by a modified vector error correction model the effect of exchange rate volatility is analyzed through an extended gravity model. The detailed results obtained from empirical estimations clearly show that the relationship between exchange rates and foreign trade in Czechia does not completely correspond with the theoretical assumptions. We revealed that domestic currency depreciation worsens in the long-term trade balance in substantial parts of the Czech foreign trade, such as in the trade of machinery and transport equipment with Germany, Austria and France. The classical J-curve effect was confirmed only for the trading of beverages and tobacco with Italy and for the trading of manufactured goods with Slovakia. We also found that an increased exchange rate volatility does not necessarily reduce foreign trade turnover, as the results for crude materials, fuels, chemical and manufactured products indicate. By contrast, the theoretical expectation of negative impact of volatility was validated for machinery, transport equipment, food and animals. Therefore, although Czechia is a small, open economy, the exchange rate effects on foreign trade significantly differ in magnitude and direction across the trading partners and product groups.
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    Multiple criteria analysis of the life cycle of the built environment
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Žižka, Miroslav; Ekonomická fakulta
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    An approach to measuring website quality in the rural tourism industry based on atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy sets
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Stanujkic, Dragisa; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras; Tamošaitienė, Jolanta; Ekonomická fakulta
    Attracting new customers can be identified as one of the key roles websites play in the tourism and hotels industry that can be of special importance for less known tourist destinations, especially for rural tourism. However, some of current researches indicate that many first-time visitors spend a very short time on a particular webpage when accessing a particular website. Therefore, if we presume that the acquisition of new customers is one of the features of a website, such a website should be designed to obtain the attention of the first-time visitors and to keep them.Various elements of websites essential for obtaining the attention of website visitors and crucial for their satisfaction have been identified in numerous studies. As opposed to these studies, this paper focuses on designing a multiple criteria model that could realistically determine the quality of the website from the first-time visitors’ point of view. In order to form a realistic multiple criteria decision making model, the proposed approach is based on the use of a smaller number of criteria that are evaluated using Atanassov fuzzy sets. Also, in order to create a model which as simple as possible, based on Atanassov fuzzy sets, this approach uses the Singleton Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers.The use of the proposed approach for assessing the quality of some websites which promote tourist potentials of the Old Mountain indicates the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.Finally, with the proposed, or with some other, set of criteria, while retaining a relatively small number of criteria, the proposed approach can be successfully applied to the tourism and hotels industry, as well as to other areas, with the aim of determining the quality of the websites from the first-time visitors’ point of view.
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    Cost-benefit analysis: too often biased
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Vejchodská, Eliška; Ekonomická fakulta
    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely applied in many countries in evaluating public projects and regulatory instruments. It is employed, for example, as a basis for decisions within the European Union’s subsidy policy. CBA enables to express the comprehensive effect of a project or a governmental regulation on social welfare and thereby to introduce expertise to political decision-making. However, its practical applications face many problems. Different methodological choices in performing CBA enable to obtain diametrically opposite conclusions. Moreover, the way how investors apply for EU Fund subsidies encourages CBA performers to adjust CBA results to requirements of subsidy applicants. The unavoidable consequence is frequently mendacious, unreliable and misleading CBA. The paper brings an overview of the flexibility in CBA methodological choices. It further focuses on analysing the CBA performance practice in the area of CBA project appraisal for the purposes of applying for EU funding. We examine the reasons for manipulating results using a theoretical analysis and support our findings by our own empirical survey among CBA performers. As our survey among commercial CBA performers uncovers, many entities performing CBA lack expert background for CBA performance and performed CBA are often biased and misleading. Our theoretical analysis shows its main reason: The person choosing and remunerating the CBA performer for the purposes of a project appraisal for EU funding is at the same time the subsidy applicant and thus with a clear interest in the optimistic result of the CBA. CBA performers are happy to oblige their customers. The remedy to this situation is to get rid of this unintentional alliance among CBA performers and subsidy applicants.