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    Use of time in single-member households in Slovakia
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Knapková, Miroslava; Kaščáková, Alena; Ekonomická fakulta
    Households represent one of the basic units in economy. In the last years, the increasing number of single-member households has become a significant issue in Slovakia. In 2011, ratio of single-member households was more than 25% in Slovakia (The 2011 Population and Housing Census in Slovakia). It is an interesting phenomenon influencing not only labor market (paid work), but also unpaid work activities (work performed in households) and spending of the leisure time. The aim of this study was to examine the time use of single-member households in Slovakia. We analyzed 301 single-member households and allocation of their daily time into 13 activities. To get information about the daily time use of persons, we used household member diary. Study offers unique data, based on the original field research on time use of Slovak households and individuals, which was conducted in 2017 by team of researchers from Faculty of Economics, Matej Bel University in Slovakia. Besides collecting data on time use, we also collected information about the attitudes and preferences of individuals concerning the paid work and unpaid work. Within the single-member households, we analyzed and compared specific groups of persons – men and women, and persons younger than 30 years of age and persons over 65 years of age. We found out, that young persons living alone spend significant part of their daily activities by paid work (almost 2 and half hours more than an average for person in multi-persons households). Men living alone spend significant part of their daily time in paid work and by sport and usage of modern technologies. Time use of persons over 65 years living alone pointed to problem of their social isolation and absence of education in this age group.
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    Website usability and user experience during shopping online from abroad
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Bucko, Jozef; Kakalejčík, Lukáš; Ekonomická fakulta
    The Internet became a non-stop market of goods and services. As the market is oversaturated, companies are forced to fight for each customer because it is easier than ever to change the partner who will fulfil customer’s needs. User experience and website usability is an important factor during the online purchasing process. The main objective of our study was to analyse the website usability issues users have when purchasing products from abroad. In order to achieve our objective, we analysed the data from Consumer Barometer. We conducted the principal components analysis, followed by fuzzy clustering in order to determine the groups of users based on the perceived website usability problems during online purchasing. By using factor analysis, we created two factors consisting of variables explaining website usability issues. Moreover, with the use of fuzzy clustering, we created and described three groups of users based on their perception of website usability issues during online purchasing from abroad and assigned countries of origin of these users. The results of our analysis pointed out to one particular group of Internet users (Cluster 3) which are highly sensitive when it comes to the usability issues during their online purchasing process. These results can be used by companies operating on one or more of the observed markets in order to improve their performance when serving their potential customers. In addition, the results can be used in the educational process of educational institutions which field of study is focused on economics and business. As we did not find any similar study, this study extends the current knowledge of the issue and gives insight to the contemporary needs of international online shoppers.
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    Mediating effect of psychological capital on the relationship between spiritual leadership and performance
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Baykal, Elif; Zehir, Cemal; Ekonomická fakulta
    The challenging and changing business life of the 21st century has resulted in a stressful and negative work atmosphere that negatively charges and demoralizes people. Accordingly, nowadays business life necessitates a more positive approach in handling issues regarding leadership and management. This change in focus has contributed to the fame of spiritual leadership which is a holistic leadership approach that can integrate the minds and souls of people and integrates the four main components of human existence: body, mind, heart, and spirit. Spiritual leadership draws from an inner life nourished by spiritual practices that contribute to the development of values, attitudes, and behaviors that are necessary to intrinsically motivate one’s self and result in a sense of spiritual well-being. Spiritual leadership creates the sense that life is purposeful and meaningful; thus, under spiritual leaders, followers feel themselves to be more capable and they show continuous growth and self-realization. In our study, we proposed that spiritual leadership would have a positive effect on the psychological capital of followers, which is a human capacity focusing on the strengths of humans rather than weaknesses; i.e., positivity rather than negativity. Also, we supported the idea that spiritual leadership has a positive effect on performance due to its positive effects on cognitive capabilities of leaders’ followers and due to the meaningful and alluring vision that entices followers to perform at their best. We expected that the psychological capacity of followers may have a mediator effect in this relationship. We conducted face-to-face and online surveys with 736 white-collar workers in Turkey and we analyzed our data using SEM. Results of the study confirmed our expectations.
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    Inquiry into high school students’ utility function
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Janáček, Julius; Šťastný, Dan; Ekonomická fakulta
    This study uses data from our life-satisfaction survey of 1,414 students in 11 high schools in Northern parts of Czech Republic in the spring 2017 to discover certain parts of high school students’’ utility function. This is potentially useful for audiences ranging from macro-level policy-makers to teachers to parents to the students themselves in improving the design of policies and practices that either address life-satisfaction directly or affect it indirectly by pursuing other objectives. We use ordered logit and OLS regression models in various specifications to explore how different factors of students’ life from various domains (e.g. housing, economic, lifestyle, personal) associate with their self-assessed degree (0-10 scale) of life satisfaction or happiness. The effects of independent variables were investigated both separately within their own domain, and in all-inclusive models while always controlling for gender, age and specific effects of particular schools. The results confirm quite robustly several well-established and expected effects, namely the positive effects of one’s relations to parents and friends, or one’s health conditions, and negative effects of smoking tobacco or being discriminated. The findings also reveal some relatively unestablished facts such as a large positive effect of being needed, or the negative effect of commuting time. The outright surprising results include the irrelevance of alcohol consumption (contrary to expected negative effects and in contrast to identified negative effects of tobacco consumption) or of the absolute amount of money available (contrary to expected positive effects); the positive effect of cannabis use and of being a vegan; or the partially negative effect of engaging in arts or creative activities. While the above results are not all easily turned into recommendations for students, their parents, school administrators or policy makers on how to secure a happy life of teenagers, there are a few that may go beyond the obvious: avoid smoking, consider commuting time seriously, encourage and nurture good relations. Caveats regarding external validity apply.
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    Evaluating efficiency in specialized hospital facilities
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Szabo, Stanislav; Mihalčová, Bohuslava; Gallo, Peter; Ivaničková, Marianna; Ekonomická fakulta
    Currently, companies use for the diagnostic their performance different methods, parameters and indicators when the high current measurement and evaluation of effectiveness. Choosing the right key performance measures is to ensure the evaluation of the effectiveness with high recall and the possibility of subsequent influence and control very important. The main object of contribution is evaluating efficiency in hospital facilities specialized for patients suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, ailments that affect the largest group of people in living in Slovakia. This followed the discovery that the number of newborns in Slovakia suffering from congenital heart diseases has increased over the recent years, and in the period between 2002 and 2012 annually 451 children at an average are born with this congenital disorder. Another factor that prompted our research was that the diseases of the circulatory system are rated among the most frequent cause of hospitalization and mortality in Slovakia, as confirmed by the International Classification of Diseases or the ICD (the international equivalent of the Slovak MKCH-10). Accordingly, people suffering from cardio-vascular diseases belong to the most-frequently hospitalized patients. The third finding we have arrived at is the high level of consumption of prescription medicines by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification, again dominated by cardio-vascular diseases. The paper describes both the cardio-vascular diseases and the hospital facilities specialized in their treatment, assessing their efficiency in evaluating the major factors affecting them. The evaluation is carried out based on financial ratios and application of prediction models. The ouptut of this contribution consists in the evaluation of the efficiency of specialized hospital facilities (further only SHF) applying the DEA method and the evaluation of efficiency of the SHFs using financial ratios.