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- ItemAbnehmende Bedeutung des Übergangs zwischen Kindes- und Jugendalter durch vermehrte Lateinschulbildung im Mittelalter?(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Richard-Elsner, Christiane; Technická univerzita v LiberciJ. Hajnal set up the these that the Western European marriage pattern was characterized by a relatively late marriage in broad strata of the population below the elites. The adolescence, the long period between sexual maturity and marriage, was often spent in the service of a foreign household. I examined the view on children in popular, didactic texts aimed at urban laypeople, comparing sources from around 1300 with those from around 1500. Hajnal’s foregoing finding is primarily supported by the early sources. From adolescence on, the terms for young people changed from gender-unspecific “kint [child]” to “kneht” or “meit”. These youths are mostly mentioned as servants. By 1500, there were significantly more Latin schools than by 1300 and they did no longer serve the sole purpose of providing clerics. The examined sources from this period deal mainly with the socialization of boys to erudition; that of girls and unlearned boys, still the majority of adolescents, is mentioned only in passing. A different gender-specific socialization of “sun [son]” and “tochter [daughter]” appears to be a more important aspect than the break between childhood and adolescence in the life cycle.
- ItemAufwachsen und das Aufwachsen unterstützen – Zur Thematisierung und Unterstützung von Übergängen in Christian Heinrich Zellers Ueber Kleinkinder-Pflege(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Engelmann, Sebastian; Technická univerzita v LiberciTransitions are a hot topic in educational science. At the same time, they have been addressed in educational literature for quite some time, and the multitude of guidebooks in particular have always been concerned with supporting transitions. This paper elaborates how a nineteenth-century guidebook formulates advice on the upbringing of young children to help facilitate the transition from the post-natal to the toddler stage, as well as providing a religious upbringing. The question is answered by a discussion of the selected guidebook Ueber Kleinkinder- Pflege by the pietist teacher Christian Heinrich Zeller.
- ItemCelebrating May 1: Visual Propaganda from Different Perspectives in Communist Hungary(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Somogyvári, Lajos; Technická univerzita v LiberciCelebration has been a key idea in the disciplinary fields of Mentalitätsgeschichte and anthropology: my paper aims to introduce this in the specific context of May Day parades and marches in Hungary in the 1950s and 1960s, focusing on the educational nature of the communist system. For decades, verbal and visual propaganda tried to indoctrinate students and their parents and teachers by transforming perceptions of everyday reality through cultural practices and quasi-religious rites. From the perspective of theories about political religion, statues and symbols intended for the unification of leaders and masses in ceremonial- festive surroundings were meaningful elements with both continuous and changing characteristics. I would like to analyse this kind of message associated with May 1 through photographs of official processions in Budapest, choosing a concrete place as a starting point and adding verbal sources and different dimensions to the interpretation. First, party documents, minutes, and preparations establish the basic level of my approach, showing the original (and contemporary hidden) intentions of the ruling power to organize and execute International Workers’ Day. Next, propaganda and photographs of children and students demonstrate how the main celebration of the communist era was staged in order to legitimize its acceptance and popularity. The discussion concludes with a counter-narrative compiled from reports of the US legation and archives of Radio Free Europe, presenting an anti-communist view and a construction of Western propaganda.
- ItemThe Concept of German Bildung as a Realization of the Hero Archetype(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Neuhaus, Till; Vogt, Michaela; Technická univerzita v LiberciThis paper is trying to offer a perspective on why the German concept of Bildung was able to master transitions regarding time, geography, and disciplines. The argument of this paper is that Bildung is a transformative process which greatly resembles the archetypical pattern as identified by Carl Gustav and later refined by Joseph Campbell. In order to argue for this claim, this paper will provide an overview on the idea of the archetype and, in the following, identify aspects of Bildung which follow the archetypical pattern. The paper will focus on the history of the term as well as its origins but also on specific realization of learning processes as suggested by educational psychology as well as educational institutions.
- ItemDie akademischen Rituale an den Universitäten Prag und Basel im späten 15. bis frühen 17. Jahrhundert(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Holý, Martin; Technická univerzita v LiberciBased on sources of various kinds, this study examines pre-modern academic rituals in the case of two major European universities founded in the Middle Ages. The article suggests the breadth of the issue, focusing primarily on so-called depositions and then on master’s and doctoral graduations. It traces various aspects of the issue, including the process of these rituals and their symbolic aspects. It concludes by summarizing the findings, opening up further perspectives, including the possibility of researching other types of academic rituals and celebrations.
- ItemDie ‚Entdeckung‘ der Jugend durch die Pädagogik Friedrich Wilhelm Foersters im Spannungsfeld von natürlicher Kraft und christlicher Idealität(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Maier, Alexander; Technická univerzita v LiberciThis paper is picking up the assumption, that youth was ‘discovered’ at the beginning of the 20th century as an own life stage as well as a kind of aesthetic energy that inspired people of every age and class to cultivate an idealistic sentiment and attitude. In this context, the essay is posing the question in which way Friedrich Wilhelm Foerster (1869–1966) and his pedagogical thinking have contributed to this discovery. Thereby, the paper can also be understood as an input – among others – to close the research gap on Foersters educational theory. There are two main focuses: The first one lies on his comprehension on education as ‘self-education’ of the youth, which is allowed by their natural force. Because nature is disordered, ‘self-education’ needs – this is the second aspect – an idealistic orientation: the Christian faith. On the way to clarify his concept of ‘self-education’, that was inspired by the United States ‘progressive education’, and to curve out the role of the Christian tradition, the essay compares Foerster with John Dewey (1859–1952). At last, this exploration leads not only to the result, that the heritage of Christianity was meaningful for both but also, that this Christian influence gave their concepts of ‘new education’ – in contrast to others – some precise criteria, so that they were able to deal with ‘normal’ young people (instead of the ‘holy child’) and to resist fascism or socialism. But this doesn’t mean, that Foersters educational concept was exempt of ambivalence in a pedagogical perspective.
- ItemDie „Arbeitsgemeinschaft“ im Erziehungsvollzug der Landesstrafanstalt Untermaßfeld/Thüringen um 1930(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Oelbauer, Daniel; Technická univerzita v LiberciAt the beginning of the 1920s there were groundbreaking developments in Thuringia‘s penal system and adult education. The execution of retribution gave way to an education which pursued the goal of treating each prisoner individually. Educational measures were given special priority. In particular, the offer included adult education formats in the understanding of the „Neue Richtung“ of Weimar adult education. The participants should be enabled to plan and shape their need for education independently. „Arbeitsgemeinschaft“ (working group) was used as method. Against the background of different framework conditions in the penal system and „free“ adult education, the question of the challenges that had to be overcome for the (successful) implementation of working groups is investigated using the example of the Thuringian state penal institution Untermaßfeld.
- ItemEinweihungszeremonien als Übergangsriten in jüdischer Aufklärung und Reformbewegung. Drei Fallbeispiele(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Lohmann, Uta; Technická univerzita v LiberciThe opening of the Jewish Wilhelm School in Breslau (Wroclaw) in 1791 was celebrated with a large public ceremony, which was attended not only by the newly admitted pupils, their parents and teachers, but also by high state officials and well-known scholars. Similar large-scale and publicly announced celebrations took place in 1810, when the first German Reform synagogue, the so-called Jacobs Temple, was solemnly inaugurated in Seesen. Two years before this event, the Westphalian Consistory of Israelites in Kassel had been opened also with a public celebration. Both institutions now held “confirmations,” which replaced the traditional bar mitzvah. The admission to the Wilhelm School in Breslau and the participation in the Reform services in Seesen and Kassel meant for the Jewish pupils and “confirmands” not only the transition into another phase of life. These entries also marked the transition from traditional Judaism to a Judaism of modernity. Accordingly, these newly created institutions were primarily concerned with forming entirely ‘new humans’. The Breslau School aimed at a balanced perfection of the intellect, emotions and morality of its pupils. Analogously, the worship services and confirmations in Seesen and Kassel were directed toward “thinking, feeling, and acting religiously”. Drawing on the descriptions of the opening ceremonies and the inauguration speeches in Breslau, Kassel and Seesen, the rites of transition, the terminology associated with the transition and the conceptual content of the envisaged new type of education and instruction are outlined.
- ItemFirst Communion in Early Twentieth-century Italy: a Rite of Passage within Childhood(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Alfieri, Paolo; Technická univerzita v LiberciIn traditionally Catholic countries, First Communion has widely functioned as a key rite of passage. In the modern age, and in particular during the eighteenth century, children were not admitted to the sacrament of the Eucharist until adolescence or even until the age of twenty. The ceremony thus represented a rite of passage that marked the transition to adulthood. A reversal of tradition came in some pastoral experiences of the nineteenth century and was officially established by the decree Quam singulari Christus amore – ordered in 1910 by Pope Pius X – which set the age for receiving Holy Communion at around seven years. First Communion still retained the form of a rite of passage, albeit without the adultist religious language surrounding Confirmation and without the pessimism about childhood that had been inherited from the past. The new educational outlook initiated by Pius X was also confirmed by his successors. Analysis of official Church pronouncements, devotional literature for children, and selected religious images – examined with an interdisciplinary heuristic approach – allows to shed light on a key shift in the Italian Catholic educational imaginary over the first half of the twentieth century, when Communion was seen as a typical childhood experience, in accordance with the changes underway in the upbringing and socialization of children and with the educational theories that valued children’s spontaneity and experience.
- ItemISCHE 43 Milan. Histories of Educational Technologies. Cultural and Social Dimensions of Pedagogical Objects. Aims and Results(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Polenghi, Simonetta; Debè, Anna; Technická univerzita v LiberciSimonetta Polenghi is full professor of History of education at the Catholic Univesity of the Sacred Heart, Milan. Her research focuses on history of school and pedagogy, history of university, history of special education between the 18th and 20th century. firstname.lastname@example.org
- ItemMuseumspädagogik im digitalen Raum und die Pandemiezeit ‒ ihre transitiven Prozesse und Rituale(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Kempf, Katalin; Vincze, Beatrix; Németh, András; Technická univerzita v LiberciAs a specific pedagogical transformation of the above-mentioned cultural anthropological approach, the article attempts to answer the questions motivated by museum pedagogy. They are: a) What transitional processes are evident in the world of traditional museums because of digitalisation in the informal processes of museum knowledge transfer? b) How do these processes affect the behaviour of museum visitors and the rituals of the museum visit itself? The topicality of the research to be presented is that museums closed because of the COVID pandemic have been permanently transformed into virtual space, which has fundamentally changed the range of museum content and their museum education programmes. Research complementing the topic analyses the websites of Hungarian museums and examines the main characteristics of virtual visitors (need-based information, search, and user activities) and changes in visitor behaviour. It analyses a) how visitor rituals develop, b) how specific elements of these specific transitional changes appear in cyberspace. The research intervals were Spring quarantine 2020, reopening in summer and closure period from autumn 2020 to spring 2021.
- ItemObraz člověka a výchovy v Esejích Michela de Montaigne(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Strouhal, Martin; Technická univerzita v LiberciThe study deals with the question of the relationships among the conception of human nature, its cognition and education in Michel de Montaigne’s Essays. In the series of essays, Montaigne repeatedly rejects attempts to base his conception of human nature on antic- scholastic traditions operating with the general concepts of man. Montaigne’s specific Christian scepticism (“new pyrrhonism”) is the starting point and the argumentative method for rejecting the reliability of general concepts and definitions. Whereas scholastic (as well as predominantly entire ancient) philosophy assumed the existence of an ideal species to be the essence that determines each individual’s essential characteristics, Montaigne sees, on the contrary, man in the state of constant transformation, transition as crucial to understanding the human situation. This fundamentally transforms the traditional understanding of the relationship between a pattern and its imitation, into a relationship that has not only epistemological but also pedagogical and moral implications. Montaigne argues that subjectivity cannot be understood against the background of a general pattern, but only from itself, from ambiguities and paradoxes that, on the contrary, exclude, elude any generalization. Human nature cannot be captured in a general concept, it can only be exemplified from a specific experience. Thus, man is much more a transition (from one form to another) than a substance. The aim of this study is to show Michel de Montaigne as a modern and up-to-date thinker who, through his rhetoric and his way of grasping pedagogical issues, has opened up a number of educational questions that are relevant today: for example, how to understand the educational goal in a practical and informal way, how to work in education with the unique and the non-generalizable, and how to consider the relationship between knowledge and action.
- ItemReport from the General Conference ICOM(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Seiner, Jakub; Technická univerzita v LiberciJakub Seiner works as a historian at the National Pedagogical Museum and Library of J. A. Comenius, Prague, in the Department of the Přemysl Pitter and Olga Fierz Archive. His professional interests include 20th century history, Jewish history and Eubiotics. email@example.com
- ItemTransitions in the Way Germans and Polish-German Relations Were Presented in the Primary Schools of the Polish People’s Republic(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Kuliś, Jakub; Technická univerzita v LiberciThe aim of the article is to show the changes in the perception of Germans and Polish-German relations in the education of the People’s Republic of Poland. This problem is related to the changes in the domestic politics of post-war Poland and both German states. The paper is devoted to the evolution of the perception of Poland’s western neighbor from the post-war period to the end of the Polish People’s Republic, i.e. until 1989. The study presents the beginnings of the anti-German narration, caused by war trauma, which has intensified since 1949 due to pressure which has been exerted by communist government. The next part shows in which places the end of Stalinism and the takeover of power by Władysław Gomułka softened the perception of Federal Republic of Germany. The next phase was opened by the recognition of the western border of Poland by the Federal Republic of Germany on December 7, 1970. This event entailed a gradual liberalization of the recognition of the German problem in the curricula. Undoubtedly, this tendency deepened in the decade of Edward Gierek’s rule due to the problems of the Polish People’s Republic with the repayment of foreign debt, partly also in West Germany. In the early 1980s, the establishment of The Independent and Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarność brought a new quality. Thanks to them the methods of showing Germans (and Polish education as a whole) started a slowly evolution to eliminate the communist propaganda. The school subjects which received the most attention were history, German language, Polish language and geography, because during these lessons the issues related to Germany were most often discussed. The work was created on the basis of selected textbooks and curricula.
- ItemTutors and Home Teachers – a Transitional Position in the 19th Century(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Pohle, Richard; Technická univerzita v LiberciThis paper is a plea and an invitation not only to locate the tutor as a historical figure in the pre-modern period, but to explore him as an integral part of the private education market of the 19th and still early 20th century. To this end, it begins by considering why historical and pedagogical research has so far paid little attention to the continuing existence of this figure after 1800. It then discusses empirical approaches to this precarious phenomenon and the possibilities offered by accessing it through protestant candidates for pastorates. Finally, using the advice literature, it attempts to show how the discursive processing of the home teacher experience as well as their social position changed in the course of the 19th century. As a transitional figure, both in biographical terms and in terms of pedagogical history, it can serve to open up the flourishing private education market of the 19th century and, what is more, to give contemporary homeschooling experiences a historical depth dimension.
- ItemUsing of Digital Storytelling in the Teaching of History(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Lanszki, Anita; Technická univerzita v LiberciThe paper presents the results of an empirical study in which students (N=41) made digital stories in history classes in two different age groups. The aims of using digital storytelling in history classes were, on the one hand, to find and use relevant written and visual sources, and on the other hand, to create a personal connection to a historical person or event. The purposes of the research were (1) to clarify the conditions of applying digital storytelling in history classrooms in lower and upper secondary school levels and (2) to measure the impact of it on students’ learning competencies. The teachers wrote case studies, and students wrote learning diaries about their educational experiences. Students’ reading, writing, and listening skills were measured with pre- and post-tests. Throughout the project, the active involvement of students, their own learning activities, and creativity with digital tools were observed. We have found that the method creates a link between generations. Meanwhile, core competencies such as reading and writing were developed. The didactic limitations of using digital storytelling could be traced back to the lack of time, digital equipment and rooms.
- ItemVom Überschreiten der „Schattenlinie“. Zur Aktions- und Handlungsforschung der 1970er Jahre im Spannungsfeld von Theorie und Praxis(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Haupt, Selma; Zenke, Christian Timo; Technická univerzita v LiberciStarting from the discussion on the theory- practice relation in educational science, this article focuses on the tradition of action research, particularly in the course of the 1970s. Using the example of Laborschule Bielefeld, a state-run experimental school, it examines the challenges that arise in the attempt to fundamentally question the boundaries between theory and practice in the mode of action research. Not only does it become apparent that the tension between theory and practice cannot be completely resolved – even if an attempt is made to resolve it constructively in a group of “teacher researchers” who act as autonomously as possible – but the fundamental difficulties of participatory research in the field of pedagogy are revealed.
- ItemWandel von Deutungsmustern in Lehrerkollegien – Übergänge, Transitionen und das Problem der Generationen(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Göttlicher, Wilfried; Technická univerzita v LiberciThis paper explores whether the succession of generations can be an impetus that changes prevailing patterns of interpretation within teaching staff. Following Karl Mannheim, I argue that social patterns of interpretation are shaped by generation-specific experiences. One then would expect changes in the patterns of interpretation within teaching staff to take place continuously, as older members are replaced by younger ones. But due to particular dynamics within the labour market, over the last two centuries, always one specific birth cohort was prevailing among teachers (in Germany). At the end of its career, it was replaced by a younger cohort within a short period. This might mean, typical patterns of interpretation changed within a short period as well. This idea is tested by two examples. They suggest it is correct for a homogeneous group of teachers. However, within other social groups of teachers in other geographical areas different patterns of interpretation can be found simultaneously. Considering the teaching profession as a whole it would thus be problematic to assume uniform, generation-specific patterns of interpretation that changed at uniform points in time.
- ItemA Woman in the Polish Model of Sex Education in the Stalinist and Post-Stalinist Period(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Pauluk, Dorota; Technická univerzita v LiberciAfter the Second World War, Poland imposed a socialist system and Marxist ideology. Communist propaganda proclaimed the slogans of emancipation and equality of women through work. This situation changed the relationship between the sexes and how roles were performed. Moral changes, a demographic explosion, high divorce and abortion rates were a serious scratch on the image of an ideal society for the communists. Sexual education was to counteract the negative trends. The article aims to show the image of a woman that emerges from the publication of sex education during the period of Stalinism and post-Stalinism. The compact publications recommended by the Society for Conscious Motherhood (1946–1962), supported by the communist authorities, were selected for the analysis. The female themes are a mixture of scientific knowledge and Marxist ideology. Sex education aimed to prepare responsible wives and mothers who would reconcile traditional roles with professional work. The knowledge of rational fertility management (contraception) was to ensure the fulfilment of the roles. With an emphasis on emancipation and equality, women were also held responsible for the quality of sex life, the welfare of marriage, family and socialist society. The argument for such an approach was to result from the natural differences between the sexes. The results of the analysis showed inconsistency and inconsistency in the emerging image of a woman and expectations regarding the performance of social roles.
- ItemZpráva o konferenci: 12. sjezd historiků České republiky. Několik zamyšlení nad postavením dějin vzdělanosti(Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Šimek, Jan; Matějček, Petr; Kasper, Tomáš; Technická univerzita v LiberciJan Šimek holds Ph.D. in Czech History. Currently he leads the Department of History of Education in the National Pedagogical Museum and Library of J. A. Comenius in Prague. His area of research comprises of the development of teaching aids and the history of school buildings (e.g. questions of the historical development of the form of school buildings or the relationship between reform pedagogy and the form of space for teaching, he also leads a long-term project dealing with the mapping of school buildings in the Czech Republic). firstname.lastname@example.org