1918 – die Zeit der großen Schulreformprogramme in Österreich: Reformpädagogik und Geisteswissenschaftliche Pädagogik im Wettstreit

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Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského
Technická univerzita v Liberci, Fakulta přírodovědně-humanitní a pedagogická
1918 – the Time of Major School Reform Programs in Austria: New Education and Humanities Pedagogy in Competition In 1918 Austria was changed into a democratic republic. Despite the difficult political and economic situation at the end of the First World War self-confident and future oriented school reform programs were developed in Austria. Influences of international New Education as well as of German Humanities Pedagogy can be determined. The Social Democrats under the leadership of Otto Glöckel, influenced by the ideas and concepts of New Education (such as “learning by doing”), postulated the creation of one comprehensive school (“Allgemeine Volksschule”) up to the age of 14 in order to realize equal opportunity. The Christian Socials on the other side were influenced by ideas of the German Humanities Pedagogy and advocated under the Leadership of Alois Höfler and Richard Meister for maintaining the variety of types of secondary education at level I: “Volksmittelschule”, “Untergymnasium”, “Unterrealschule”. Because of these great differences no agreement on a school reform program could be realized. Nevertheless in 1927 a compromise was decided: the “Haupt and Mittelschulgesetz”. But type diversity in the field of secondary education remains and characterizes the Austrian school system even in the 21st century.
Austria 1918, school reform, New Education, Humanities Pedagogy, Otto Glöckel (1874– 1935), Alois Höfler (1853–1922), Richard Meister (1881–1964), Social Democrats, Christian Socials, one comprehensive school, equal opportunity, learning by doing, perpetuation of the diversity of types in secondary school level l, Haupt- and Mittelschulgesetz 1927