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    Marketing tools in the era of digitization and their Use in Practice by Family and other Businesses
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Petrů, Naděžda; Kramoliš, Jan; Stuchlik, Peter; Ekonomická fakulta
    This article addresses Marketing 4.0 as an exceptionally dynamic field for company competitiveness that is evolving rapidly. The main goal of this article is to evaluate and compare the overall level of use of modern marketing tools in practice by family and non-family businesses, and subsequently to measure the dependence between the extent of Marketing 4.0 activities and number of employees, volume of sales, field of business, and year the company was established. Primary and secondary data was analyzed using basic and advanced statistical methodologies, including the testing of six hypotheses. The study showed that for both family and non-family businesses there has not been any significant increase in overall marketing vitality in the years studied. Indeed, the long-term focus of companies on values provided to customers and relationships with customers was confirmed. The results further showed that from the perspective of marketing vitality, one of the currently more significant weaknesses of smaller companies in particular of both family and non-family types is a missing or insufficient strategy for realization of marketing activities. This study confirms the dependence of the level of overall marketing vitality on sales volume and company size by number of employees, but on the other hand no dependence was proven between marketing vitality on field of business or year company established. This study evaluates the liminality and states that family businesses above all others address what is for them the more important strategic question, namely that of succession. The study is unique in that it compares the results of three studies carried out between 2016 and 2019. The context of this study is framed by an appeal to eliminate barriers to change and rapid response by companies to the needs, requirements, and expectations of customers operating in the online world.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Nazarczuk, Jarosław M.; Umiński, Stanisław; Márquez-Ramos, Laura; Ekonomická fakulta
    After the announcement in June 2016 that the UK would leave the EU, studies analysing the consequences of this reversal in economic integration have proliferated, mostly presenting prospective consequences for the UK economy. But Brexit will necessarily also have consequences for non-UK European countries and their regions. Given the different character and intensity of regions’ interconnections with the British economy, we assess Polish and Spanish regions’ vulnerability to Brexit in the sphere of foreign trade. We rely on the conceptual framework originally presented by Turner et al. (2003) comprising: exposure, sensitivity and resilience, which together describe the overall vulnerability to a specifi c phenomenon. We fi ll the gap in the Brexit-related literature by applying the perspective of the regions of other EU countries, engaged in trade relations with the UK. We show that geography “still matters” and due to gravity, path dependency and FDI, some regions have developed relatively stronger commercial links with the British economy. We expected to obtain the taxonomy or Polish and Spanish regions ‘mixed’ within the identifi ed clusters of vulnerability. However, it is not the case, because clusters are mainly composed by Spanish or Polish regions, with a few exceptions, in which several Polish regions are accompanied by one or two Spanish regions. The results show greater vulnerability of Spanish (more exposed but better prepared) than Polish regions (more sensitive). While Brexit is rather perceived as a national problem, its asymmetrical impact on regions’ economy through the trade channel is a serious challenge for regional policy. It is therefore the role for regional institutions to monitor the vulnerability to the Brexit consequences and to facilitate adjustments to the exporting (and importing) companies that will be severely affected. They can be assisted in searching for the alternative export (import) markets.
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    Comparison of Grocery Shopping Behaviour of Slovak Residents on the Slovak-Austrian Border: an Empirical Study – Hainburg an der Donau
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Kita, Pavol; Križan, František; Bilková, Kristína; Zeman, Milan; Siviček, Tomáš; Ekonomická fakulta
    Food is a part of human life, forming its existential and cultural basis. It also has become the basis of trade and a measure of the level of one or another culture, the engine of economic development. All these themes resonate more and more in debates in Slovakia as well. There are several reasons why. Slovaks still pay relatively more for food in comparison to neighbouring Austrians, who benefit from a rich offer of food at an affordable price. This might be related to an organized agricultural landscape, which is the product of economically prosperous food production. Bratislava residents’ dissatisfaction with shopping experiences and products on offer in the current retail network in Bratislava forces them to travel to shop in the town of Hainburg an der Donau. The article states the types of Slovak consumers and their identities. An empirical study was conducted on a sample of 909 Slovak consumers shopping in Austrian grocery stores located in Hainburg an der Donau on the Slovak-Austrian border. The respondents rated their shopping experience and products on offer in the town. The study compares Slovak and Austrian stores based on the consumers’ reasoning behind purchasing food in Austria and consumer satisfaction with the stores in both countries. Multidimensional scaling was used to present the results of the study. The results of the study represent a comparison of shopping behaviour of Slovak residents when considering shopping in Austria. Constructed perception maps identify the main types of consumers indicating the largest discrepancy in purchasing groceries in Austrian and Slovak stores.
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    The contribution of innovation actors into business R&D funding – does the substitution effect of public support work in the EU?
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Pisár, Peter; Ďurčeková, Ina; Stachová, Mária; Ekonomická fakulta
    Innovation and R&D are becoming a prominent part of policies of countries and transnational unions such as the European Union. This is shown in strategy “Europe 2020” established by EU which prompts member states to invest 3 % of their GDP in R&D. R&D expenditure is an important indicator of innovation performance of a country. However, it is not only important to look at R&D expenditure as one aggregate indicator, but to also consider the contributions of various innovation actors to R&D funding. Since firms are known to be the main innovation actor that creates the biggest amount of innovation in national innovation system, the paper is focused on financing of business R&D. The aim of the paper is to examine business R&D funding from resources of main innovation actors and to analyze the impact of public support of R&D on private R&D investment in EU member states. The research is based on descriptive statistics as well as panel regression and correlation analysis and cluster analysis of 28 EU member states. Our results suggest that the main source used to fund business R&D comes from business sector, followed by public support and resources from abroad. The cluster analysis resulted in four clusters based on the structure of business R&D financing in the EU countries. The analysis of substitution effect of public support of R&D suggests that public support has a positive effect on private investment in business R&D, with the raise of public support for business R&D of 0.1011 % GDP resulting in 1 % increase in business funded R&D expenditure.
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    Non-financial Indicators in the Valuation Process – Current Trends
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Hálek, Vítězslav; Borkovcová, Anna; Hašek, František; Ekonomická fakulta
    This article is motivated by the needs to make non-fi nancial indicators more accessible to and clearer for both general public and experts, especially because of the rapid expansion of nonfi nancial indicators and a complete absence of publications that would cover this topic. The main aim of this article is to emphasize the growing infl uence and contribution of the nonfi nancial indicators related to social and environmental changes in society, which has a signifi cant impact on individual companies. Furthermore, the purpose of this study is to defi ne the key terms and show how they relate to the non-fi nancial indicators. The article also aims to describe the importance and the use of the non-fi nancial indicators and defi ne the future development in the non-fi nancial indicators. Measuring the non-fi nancial indicators of a company is a new practice. The need to include the non-fi nancial aspects in the business’s evaluation has forced economic development, during which the environment has become highly unstable and characterized by global competition and rapid technological progress. The economy has turned into a very tough competitive environment. Even for the purpose of valuing an enterprise, it is not enough to compare its activities only from one point of view. The fi nancial indicators themselves seem insuffi cient, mainly because they are largely historical and may not be enough for the analysis of the future development. The contribution of this paper is primarily the determination of the non-fi nancial indicators and their infl uence on society and companies. Non-fi nancial indicators are compared to the fi nancial indicators, as it is so far insuffi ciently addressed topic. Systems of evaluating the performance of companies based on a combination of indicators (fi nancial and non-fi nancial) could become a tool for managing and enforcing a corporate strategy in the short term and especially long term.