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    Application of the competency-based approach in organisations in the Czech Republic
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Fejfarová, Martina; Urbancová, Hana; Ekonomická fakulta
    A competency-based approach is one of the important tools of human resource management aimed at achieving strategic organisational goals and a competitive advantage. The article focuses on application of the competency-based approach in organisation in the Czech Republic. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of the quantitative survey. The aim of the article is to evaluate the competency-based approach in organisations in the Czech Republic and also to identify areas and activities in which the competency-based approach is applied and test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics that relate to the issues examined. The results of the survey show that if organisations employ the competency-based approach (35.8%), they do not use individual activities within their frame on an equal basis. This is also valid for individual categories of employees (organisations concentrate in particular on managers and specialists). The results further confirm that the application of the competency-based approach in organisations in the Czech Republic depends on the fact whether an organisation is part of a larger group of organisations (p-value = 0.003, Phi coefficient = 0.238); personnel management arrangements in an organisation (the existence of a personnel department (p-value = 0.001, Phi coefficient = 0.316), processed personnel strategy (p-value = 0.006, Phi coefficient = 0.310), work position analysis execution (p-value = 0.000, Phi coefficient = 0.444), the position of the person responsible for human resource management in top management (p-value = 0.036, Phi coefficient = 0.201)) and the application of knowledge management (p-value = 0.015, Phi coefficient = 0.278). According to the strength of the relationship between the variables, the most important group of factors is that relating to personnel management organisation. No dependency on the size of organisations and sector in which organisations operate has been proven
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    Changes in the financing of municipalities and local governments of selected cities: possible effects on disintegration processes and municipal policy
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Roubínek, Pavel; Kladivo, Petr; Halás, Marián; Koutský, Jaroslav; Opravil, Zdeněk; Ekonomická fakulta
    There was significant reduction in number of municipalities in the Czech Republic in the era of socialism. This is a consequence of the application of the central system of settlement, which was based on Christaller's theory of central places. In connection with the changes after 1989, there was disintegration of such integrated communities and the situation has stabilized. Number of small villages were renewed but cities with hundred thousand inhabitants (population of these cities oscillates around hundred thousand inhabitants) did not experience such process. Due to this fact the big cities in the Czech Republic are typical for their larger size because they also administrate smaller residential units of rural character, often many kilometers from the city centers. These administrative parts of the cities are managed in different ways. In connection with the manifestations of suburbanization during the past twenty years, the transformation of the social structure of the inhabitants in these "suburbs" and changes in rules of municipal budgetary allocation of taxes (hereinafter BAT) there is the question of sustainability and stability of thus defined borders of municipalities. The paper presents opinions on the development of financing system and attempts to analyze the motives of the peripheral parts of selected cities with hundred thousand inhabitants to remain part or separate from these cities. In connection with changes in the BAT made on 1st January 2013, the financial motive can have an important role. The main aim of the paper will be a comparison of the current financial income of these municipalities with previous periods in relation to changes in the BAT and assess the impact of these changes on the potential disintegration processes and municipal politics. Process of urban disintegration and creation of a new municipality is not easy and is provided for in the legal system of the Czech Republic. The paper also gives an overview of this legislation. Authors focus on the cities of Olomouc and Pardubice.
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    The business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in selected regions of the Czech Republic and Slovakia
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Belás, Jaroslav; Demjan, Valér; Habánik, Jozef; Hudáková, Mária; Sipko, Juraj; Ekonomická fakulta
    The aim of this article was to define and compare current trends in the business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in selected regions of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In accordance with the objective, motivational factors, status in the society, levels of corruption, current business risks, approaches to loan financing, the ability to manage financial risks and business optimism in the business environment have been examined. In 2013, research into entrepreneurs’ opinions in the Czech Republic (Zlin Region) and Slovakia (Zilina and Trencin Regions) was conducted. These neighbouring regions have similar economic parameters. According to our findings, the most important motive for starting a business in the Czech Republic was to have a job. In Slovakia, the most important motive for starting a business was money. The results of our research confirmed that the societies in both countries perceived the position of entrepreneurs relatively negatively. In both countries, entrepreneurs negatively noted the approach of the state to their needs and relatively high levels of corruption. Nowadays, the most important business risk was the market risk followed by financial and personal risks. Due to a deterioration of the business environment, the performance of small and medium-sized enterprises has declined by at least 15% in both countries. In the Czech Republic, approximately 43% of entrepreneurs stated that banks accept their needs and behave appropriately to them. The positive perception of banks was significantly lower in Slovakia: 23% of entrepreneurs in the Zilina Region and 35% in the Trencin Region. Many Czech and Slovak entrepreneurs indicated that they are able to manage financial risks in their companies. Despite the significant deterioration in the business environment, SMEs demonstrate business optimism, with about 90% of the entrepreneurs in both countries believing that their company will survive the next five years.
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    Recent trends in the study of merges and acquisitions
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Achim, Sorin Adrian; Ekonomická fakulta
    Mergers and acquisitions are important operations that happen nowadays. The goal of such processes is to “conquer” new markets and benefit from their resources (natural or human), or to lower competition (by acquiring a competitor or merging with it). More and more studies are written on this subject, thing that makes people interested in it have a difficult job in staying up to date. That is why the present research had as a goal to evaluate and summarize the latest trends in the study of this subject. Based on our goal we have conducted an extended analysis on the studies published in 2014 in this field. Additionally, we have also descriptively analyzed the period 2010–2014. For this, we have presumed that the most important research is to be found in the ISI-Thomson Web of Knowledge. We point out the lack on such literature on the developing countries, as most of these studies are related to the developed ones, such as the USA, the UK, China or Germany. The major part of them is published in the Journal of Corporate Finance. The second part of the article comes to emphasize the most important ideas that are to be found in the 2014 field’s literature. Many of the studies are related to the banking sector. Additionally, we found new indexes created to evaluate the M&A performance or the concentration degree of the market due to and after M&A operations. There are papers that assess different theories, such as the merger waves theory, the concentration-fragility hypothesis, the too-big-to-merge, too-big-to-succeed or, too-big-to-fail theories and so on.
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    Measuring customer satisfaction and loyalty in spa companies
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Vildová, Eliška; Martinčík, David; Tlučhoř, Jan; Jakubíková, Dagmar; Ekonomická fakulta
    The importance of balneology for the economy of the Czech Republic has always been crucial. At a time of an unstable political environment as well as turbulent legislative and other changes, there is nothing more important than to ensure that spa guests are satisfied and that they return. Building customer loyalty and fidelity is a priority and today, it is one of the vital characteristics of modern marketing. A customer-oriented policy may become one of the keys to business success. The centre point of the issue under review is the difference between the expected and perceived level and its positioning in the tolerance zone of a particular customer. The main objective of the research is to examine the possibilities of measuring loyalty and satisfaction of customers in a spa company based on comparably simple data collection. The secondary objective is to point out the specific nature of providing spa services along with the factors that substantially influence the overall result of satisfaction and loyalty. The research results showed that managers and customers perceive the importance of satisfaction factors differently: customers put more stress on boarding than expected. As well as differences in levels of customer satisfaction and loyalty indices were proofed for different segments of customers. Therefore, the Czechs are in general more satisfied than Germans. Customers who come more often tend to be less satisfied. The guests, whose stay is at least partially covered by public health insurance, are more satisfied than self-paying customers. In general, it seems to be possible to obtain essential information about the customers and their satisfaction and loyalty from rather simply structured data gained with an easy questionnaire.