- ItemPERCEPTION OF BUSINESS ENTITIES TOWARDS DIGITIZATION OF TAX ADMINISTRATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Sobotovičová, Šárka; Blechová, Beata; Ekonomická fakultaThe digital transformation of all areas of government is one of the European Union priorities. The motivation for our research was the fact that when it comes to the evaluation of Digital Public Services, the Czech Republic ranks below the EU countries average. This article discusses the development of electronic filings for the Financial Administration in the Czech Republic. It started with a critical literature review of relevant sources. Subsequently, a research was conducted with 644 respondents in the form of a questionnaire survey. Based on the primary research, opinions on the digitization of financial administration, including the benefits and disadvantages it brings to them, was verified with entrepreneurs. The survey data was evaluated using a non-parametric test in SPSS Statistics. Following an empirical survey, it was found that the majority of respondents perceive electronic filings in a positive way. The most common form of electronic filing is through data boxes, which have been in use in the Czech Republic since 2009. Less than half of the respondents had some problems related to the introduction of electronic filings. Some of the most common issues mentioned included the familiarization with the requirements associated with the electronic filings and learning to use the program in general. With the majority of respondents, accountants are responsible for interaction with the Financial Administration. Based on the respondents’ perception, the saving of time was identified as the most significant benefit, followed by the availability of information and error checks; saving of costs was the last. The respondents evaluate electronic communication as more flexible, practical and easier.
- ItemDETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD FINANCIAL VULNERABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM SELECTED EU COUNTRIES(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Šubová, Nikola; Mura, Ladislav; Buleca, Ján; Ekonomická fakultaHousehold debt has been increasing in the last decades, and it poses a threat not only to the financial stability of households but is a precursor of the economic and financial crisis. A downturn caused by the coronavirus pandemic is expected to deepening inequalities, mainly due to the inability of households to repay existing debts or finance basic living needs. Understanding the determinants of household indebtedness and financial vulnerability is crucial for policymakers who process measures to prevent increasing household indebtedness. This paper investigates the determinants of household financial vulnerability in euro area countries using the Household Finance and Consumption Survey micro-dataset collected by the European Central Bank. The quantitative approach was applied using ordinary least square and quantile estimation procedures. The difference between OLS and quantile estimations showed the appropriateness of using the quantile regression approach. Performance analysis proved that only the number of elderly and the value of wealth and existence of mortgage interest tax relief statistically significant affects the level of vulnerability in all three waves. While the increasing number of elderly and greater value of household wealth lowers the vulnerability, the effect of mortgage interest tax relief differs across individual waves. All other used factors are essential and statistically significant for the financial vulnerability of households as well, but the importance and significance could differ across the distribution and individual waves. The effect of financial assets, education, and employment were found to be negative in all observations of all waves. On the other hand, the number of children and the value of households’ real assets is associated with increased financial vulnerability indicators.
- ItemAN EXPLANATORY MODEL OF THE ECOTOURISTS BEHAVIOUR: MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOURISM SECTOR(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Crespo-Jareño, José Alberto; Ekonomická fakultaConcern for the environment, which is of interest to academia, the business world and society in general, has meant the development of green marketing in the last half century. Environment can influence consumer behaviour and specifically the way tourists consume. The promotion of ecotourism, through information and communication, must be based on the identification of the different behaviour models to which marketing strategies are directed, according to needs, motivations, interests, expectations, behaviours and attitudes. The main research goal of this study is to determine the internal and external factors that influence the consumer behaviours identified as ecotourists, as well as the factors that shape their purchasing intentions. The theory of planned behaviour has shown its usefulness because its object (i.e., intention to perform a behaviour, taking into account that in the intentions are the factors that motivate the behaviour), through attitudes and beliefs, is the prediction and understanding of the way individuals behave. A model that facilitates the understanding of the ecological behaviour of ecotourists has been developed, starting from the value-belief-norm model towards the environment, to which a construct related to the theory of planned behaviour has been incorporated, in order to better understand the behaviour of ecotourists. The method used to analyse the causal model has been the structural equation modelling, and the sample used amounts to 403 ecotourists within a country characterized by the importance of tourism sector in its economic growing: Spain. The main result obtained indicates that the proposed model is useful to know the ecological behaviour of ecotourists. Specifically, it has been facilitated the knowledge of the factors that affect the intention to do ecotourism and to pay more to consume this type of activities. It could be useful for professionals of tourism sector to analyse and improve their ecological marketing strategies.
- ItemIMPACT OF DIFFERENT LIFE-CYCLE SAVING STRATEGIES AND UNEMPLOYMENT ON INDIVIDUAL SAVINGS IN DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PENSION SCHEME IN SLOVAKIA(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Mešťan, Michal; Králik, Ivan; Šafár, Leoš; Šebo, Ján; Ekonomická fakultaSearching for the optimal saving strategy is often tied with the life-cycle strategies where only the age of a saver is considered for setting the allocation profile between equities and bonds. Our article contributes to the debate by looking at the performance and adequacy risks arising from applying age-based saving strategies for savers in funded pension schemes. As many studies have proven the shift of the risk onto savers in defined contribution pension schemes under various saving strategies, we contribute to the debate by providing simulations of expected accumulated savings via funded pension scheme under the various life-cycle income profiles and existence of unemployment risk. Using the resampling simulation technique, we compare the fixed and age-based strategies of three different agents with various life-cycle income paths and different unemployment risk. We compare the expected amount of savings and calculate relative indicators comparing the expected monthly benefits, income replacement rate. We look closely on the impact of unemployment on the value of savings and calculate the unemployment factor explaining the value of savings lost due to the periods of unemployment. By combining life-cycle income functions of individuals with different education level and unemployment risk, we show that decisions of implementing low risk saving strategies are suboptimal and lead to a substantial decrease in replacement ratios not only for higher income cohorts but especially for the lowest ones. At the same time, we prove that employing low risk saving strategy leads to the increase of adequacy risk especially driven by the unemployment risk that is higher for lower education individuals. We conclude that age-based life-cycle saving strategies, where the remaining saving horizon is the only factor defining the allocation profile is not the optimal saving strategy and other factors should be considered as well when searching for optimal saving strategy.
- ItemDETERMINANTS OF THE ADOPTION OF INNOVATIVE FINTECH SERVICES BY MILLENNIALS(Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Solarz, Małgorzata; Swacha-Lech, Magdalena; Ekonomická fakultaFinTech Adoption Index, expressed as a percentage of the digitally active population, for 27 countries of the world in 2019 reached the level of 64%. Millennials are the generation which, compared to others, is characterized by the highest level of FinTech adoptions. In Poland, in 2019, about 75% of the Millennials used the services of FinTech. This paper aims to analyse and evaluate the selected determinants of using the innovative FinTech services by Millennials in Poland. To investigate how users adopt FinTech services, we have applied our own set of determinants – selected from an extensive literature review – covering both demographic, economic and behavioural characteristics. This approach allowed for an in-depth analysis of the examined issue. The essential empirical data were obtained based on the research using the CAWI method in December 2019 on a representative sample of Poles aged 25–40 at that time. Ultimately, 1,236 correctly completed questionnaires were used for the research. To analyse and evaluate the impact of selected determinants of FinTech adoption, a logistic regression model was used. The results obtained can thus be extremely important for managers of financial institutions. They provide information that can be used for activities aimed at maintaining FinTech’s customer base and allow to adjust the offer to the expectations of this group. Millennials most open to innovative FinTech services in Poland are young men with high and very high net income and not driven by low costs of financial services. They appreciate technological novelties, including the possibility of using a smartwatch, and when deciding on the choice of a financial institution, they do not care about the direct opinions of their relatives and friends, but take into account the opinions in social media.