Číslo 2/2022

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    Obraz člověka a výchovy v Esejích Michela de Montaigne
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Strouhal, Martin; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    The study deals with the question of the relationships among the conception of human nature, its cognition and education in Michel de Montaigne’s Essays. In the series of essays, Montaigne repeatedly rejects attempts to base his conception of human nature on antic- scholastic traditions operating with the general concepts of man. Montaigne’s specific Christian scepticism (“new pyrrhonism”) is the starting point and the argumentative method for rejecting the reliability of general concepts and definitions. Whereas scholastic (as well as predominantly entire ancient) philosophy assumed the existence of an ideal species to be the essence that determines each individual’s essential characteristics, Montaigne sees, on the contrary, man in the state of constant transformation, transition as crucial to understanding the human situation. This fundamentally transforms the traditional understanding of the relationship between a pattern and its imitation, into a relationship that has not only epistemological but also pedagogical and moral implications. Montaigne argues that subjectivity cannot be understood against the background of a general pattern, but only from itself, from ambiguities and paradoxes that, on the contrary, exclude, elude any generalization. Human nature cannot be captured in a general concept, it can only be exemplified from a specific experience. Thus, man is much more a transition (from one form to another) than a substance. The aim of this study is to show Michel de Montaigne as a modern and up-to-date thinker who, through his rhetoric and his way of grasping pedagogical issues, has opened up a number of educational questions that are relevant today: for example, how to understand the educational goal in a practical and informal way, how to work in education with the unique and the non-generalizable, and how to consider the relationship between knowledge and action.
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    Abnehmende Bedeutung des Übergangs zwischen Kindes- und Jugendalter durch vermehrte Lateinschulbildung im Mittelalter?
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Richard-Elsner, Christiane; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    J. Hajnal set up the these that the Western European marriage pattern was characterized by a relatively late marriage in broad strata of the population below the elites. The adolescence, the long period between sexual maturity and marriage, was often spent in the service of a foreign household. I examined the view on children in popular, didactic texts aimed at urban laypeople, comparing sources from around 1300 with those from around 1500. Hajnal’s foregoing finding is primarily supported by the early sources. From adolescence on, the terms for young people changed from gender-unspecific “kint [child]” to “kneht” or “meit”. These youths are mostly mentioned as servants. By 1500, there were significantly more Latin schools than by 1300 and they did no longer serve the sole purpose of providing clerics. The examined sources from this period deal mainly with the socialization of boys to erudition; that of girls and unlearned boys, still the majority of adolescents, is mentioned only in passing. A different gender-specific socialization of “sun [son]” and “tochter [daughter]” appears to be a more important aspect than the break between childhood and adolescence in the life cycle.
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    ISCHE 43 Milan. Histories of Educational Technologies. Cultural and Social Dimensions of Pedagogical Objects. Aims and Results
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Polenghi, Simonetta; Debè, Anna; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    Simonetta Polenghi is full professor of History of education at the Catholic Univesity of the Sacred Heart, Milan. Her research focuses on history of school and pedagogy, history of university, history of special education between the 18th and 20th century. simonetta.polenghi@unicatt.it
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    Zpráva o konferenci: 12. sjezd historiků České republiky. Několik zamyšlení nad postavením dějin vzdělanosti
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Šimek, Jan; Matějček, Petr; Kasper, Tomáš; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    Jan Šimek holds Ph.D. in Czech History. Currently he leads the Department of History of Education in the National Pedagogical Museum and Library of J. A. Comenius in Prague. His area of research comprises of the development of teaching aids and the history of school buildings (e.g. questions of the historical development of the form of school buildings or the relationship between reform pedagogy and the form of space for teaching, he also leads a long-term project dealing with the mapping of school buildings in the Czech Republic). simek@npmk.cz
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    Report from the General Conference ICOM
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Seiner, Jakub; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    Jakub Seiner works as a historian at the National Pedagogical Museum and Library of J. A. Comenius, Prague, in the Department of the Přemysl Pitter and Olga Fierz Archive. His professional interests include 20th century history, Jewish history and Eubiotics. seiner@npmk.cz