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- ItemThe visit fees and its influence on overalL health expenditureS – the case of the Czech Republic(Technical university of Liberec, Czech Republic, 2017-06-15) Clark, J. Stephen; Dittrich, Ludwig O.; Stará, Dana; Barták, Miroslav; Ekonomická fakultaThe goal of the paper is to develop a simple demand model of health care services that can explain why the demand for health care services, and hence overall expenditures on health care, can rise with the introduction of visit fees based on real data available publicly in the Czech Republic. One of the most common problems with the costs of health care systems around the world is that they tend to increase expenditures at a rate that is greater than the rate of inflation. This has led to the introduction of visit fees by governments and/or public, private health care facilities and other health care providers. These fees are meant to rationalize the use of the health care system and slow the growth of health care expenditures. The Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic introduced from 1. January 2008 visit fees as a way to slow the growth of health care expenditures. On the contrary, total health care expenditures increased after the introduction of visit fees. A model of visits and visit intensity is developed, where visits and visit intensity are substitutes. The model shows that the demand for health care services will increase with an increase in the price of visits when the cross price elasticity of demand for visit intensity outweighs the own price elasticity of visits. The fees were abolished with the exception of fee for emergency room visit from 2015. The introduction of a visit fee is a counterproductive rationing device for health care services if it rations a component of overall health care services with a low own price elasticity of demand without rationing a substitute variable (visit intensity) with a higher cross elasticity of demand. Thus, the introduction of a visit fee may induce a sense of entitlement for further health care services per visit on the part of consumers, leading to an increase in overall health care expenditures.
- ItemEconomic context of european subsidies and their impact on regional economic disparities on the example of the Czech republic(Technical university of Liberec, Czech Republic, 2017-06-15) Brzáková, Kristýna; Kraft, Jiří; Ekonomická fakultaThis paper presents the theoretical perspectives of economic trends in view on subsidies to investment and ask whether the allocated subsidy of ESI, specifically in the Czech Republic, are substantiated in these economic theories. This article aims to show the relationship between the amounts drawn from the selected operational program of ESI funds and per capita income level in various regions NUTS 3 during 2007-2015 in the Czech Republic. For the purpose of achieving the set goals time series analysis of variables and correlation analysis using Pearson correlation coefficient have been used. Time series data has been controlled by Durbin-Watson test of autocorrelation. Results of theoretical research brought a positive response that subsidies should positively affect the economic level of the population and should help lagging EU Member States and regions within those Member States in their economic growth. The results of empirical research showed that the correlation relationship of the amount of EU subsidies paid to the regions in the Czech Republic and the level of income cannot be clearly demonstrated. Significant correlation has been found in few of regions. However, in most cases dependence has not been demonstrated, thus, correlation between income level and amount of ESI funds from EU is not submitted. It can be concluded that in the short term, the level of per capita income in the region is getting closer to the most developed region of the City of Prague and therefore lagging regions of the country get economically closer. However, this fact cannot be clearly attributed to the amounts allocated through ESI subsidies in various regions of the Czech Republic.
- ItemLinkages between personality and knowledge sharing behavior in workplace: mediating role of affective states(Technical university of Liberec, Czech Republic, 2017-06-15) Anwar, Ch. Mahmood; Ekonomická fakultaThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between broad and select narrow personality traits and knowledge sharing behavior of employees in workplace. This study especially contributes to literature of personality by uncovering the unexplored affective states in the context of knowledge sharing behavior. Sample was drawn by using simple random sampling without replacement technique. To test the hypotheses, correlation, regression and bootstrap mediation procedures were applied to the sample data. Testing a sample of 274 university teachers, significant associations were found between big five traits, proactive personality, creative self-efficacy, and knowledge sharing behavior. Openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, proactive personality and creative self-efficacy were positively related to knowledge sharing behavior, whereas, neuroticism was negatively related to knowledge sharing behavior in workplace. The relationship between extraversion, agreeableness and creative self-efficacy was partially mediated by positive affect and the relationship between neuroticism and knowledge sharing behavior was partially mediated by negative affect. In conclusion, members of organizations, at all levels, should be trained to manage their emotions and affective reactions intelligently to share knowledge effectively and gain maximum benefits from knowledge based assets. In addition, organizational tasks must be assigned to employees with suitable narrow or broad personality traits to maximize the performance level. All the sophisticated, scientific and technical works requiring high level of knowledge sharing should not be assigned to neurotic workers. However, agreeable, extrovert, conscientious and open individuals may handle all knowledge sharing activities effectively. It is also suggested that the works requiring scientific innovation and creativity could better be performed by people high in creative self-efficacy, whereas, knowledge works requiring manual dexterity like technology transfer, industry academia linkages and knowledge based networking can best be done by proactive people.
- ItemEngel’s approach as a tool for estimating consumer behaviour(Technical university of Liberec, Czech Republic, 2017-06-15) Benda-Prokeinová, Renata; Dobeš, Kamil; Mura, Ladislav; Buleca, Ján; Ekonomická fakultaEngel’s approach to consumption plays an important role in theoretical economics. There is thus strong empirical and theoretical interest to analyze the cross-section Engel function of real populations. A prerequisite of any economic interpretation is a reasonable estimation of these curves from given cross-section data containing households’ expenditures and income. In submitted paper the Engel curves computation was applied on the Slovak household’s income and expenditure. A double-log specification of the Engel’s function has been chosen in order to estimate the expenditure elasticity of households by using an economic status of households’ head at work for each household by children per person. The household Budget Survey of the Slovak Statistical office was used for the period 2004–2014. Analysis of income elasticity demonstrated negative correlation of food expenditure in Slovak households and the number of children in all food groups of the consumer basket classified as necessary goods. Examination of the households based on the economic activity of their head (employee, self-employed, retired, and others) showed differences in availability of various food groups for the households (inferior, necessary, luxury goods). Increased amount of food groups were included within the luxury category in following order: the households with self-employed head, employed household head, and retirees. Households without children have meat and fats & oils included in the category inferior goods, other types of households according to the number of children considered all types of food in the consumer basket as necessary goods. Results provide deeper knowledge about consumers’ behavior of Slovak households.
- ItemThe stability of bankruptcy predictors in the construction and manufacturing industries at various times before bankruptcy(Technical university of Liberec, Czech Republic, 2017-06-15) Karas, Michal; Režňáková, Mária; Ekonomická fakultaThis article focuses on the design of bankruptcy models, specifically the selection of suitable predictors. Previous research has drawn mainly on data concerning manufacturing companies one year before bankruptcy. Our research examines financial ratios that are suitable bankruptcy indicators in two different industries (the construction and manufacturing industries) over a period of five years prior to bankruptcy. Our main objective is to verify whether bankruptcy predictors are industry-specific. Another objective was to determine which indicators can detect signs of bankruptcy earlier than one period before bankruptcy. We presume that the application of industry-specific indicators can help increase the predictive accuracy of bankruptcy models when applied to a particular industry. Per analogiam, we assume that the inclusion of indicators capable of detecting signs of bankruptcy more than a year before its occurrence will increase their predictive capacity. Significant predictors were first identified on a linear basis using the parametric t-test or F-test; for the sake of comparison, a non-linear non-parametric Boosted Trees method was also applied. Data for a total of 34,229 active companies and 304 companies that went bankrupt during the relevant period was analyzed. The research confirmed our presumption that bankruptcy predictors are both industry and time specific. Four years before bankruptcy, the indicators return on assets, inventory turnover and asset structure are important predictors in both the manufacturing and construction industries. The net working capital to total assets ratio is a specific predictor for manufacturing companies in the third year before bankruptcy, as is the short-term indebtedness indicator. In the construction industry, specific predictors are the net working capital to sales ratio in the third and first years before bankruptcy, and the interest coverage indicator in all four years preceding bankruptcy. Were these indicators to be included in a model for an alternative industry, they would be likely to reduce its accuracy.