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    Restructuring parcel delivery network by considering dynamic customer demand
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2018-06-28) Jin, Hyun-Woong; Ekonomická fakulta
    Parcel delivery service is one of the fastest growing industries in the world as the e-commerce such as online shopping mall expands rapidly. To increase its market share, most of parcel delivery service companies construct their delivery network as a form of hub-spoke network which is known to be efficient to deliver large scale products through widely spread area. In hub-spoke network, the number of hubs and their locations are important decision issues. Even though there are many researches on the hub-spoke network design, there is a lack of researches which deal with the fluctuating customer demand. Moreover, all the previous researches considering the fluctuating customer demand assumed that the capacity of hub facility is unlimited. Therefore, this research aims to propose the restructuring procedure of the parcel delivery network by considering the fluctuating customer demand with the capacitated hub facilities. In this research, utilization of temporary hubs is proposed so as to satisfy the fluctuating customer demand. Temporary hub responds to the excessive demands assigned to the permanent hubs and it is closed during the recession period to reduce its operating cost. A nonlinear integer programming model is constructed to decide the number of temporary hubs and their location at each time period. Since the complexity of the constructed mathematical model is NP-hard, GRASP based heuristic solution procedure is proposed. To evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed algorithm, experimental test with various demand sets considering four design factors are performed and the performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the existing meta-heuristic algorithm. Test results show that the algorithm proposed in this research is more robust than the existing algorithm against the fluctuation of customer demand as well as it provides overall better results.
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    Reciprocation at work: the role of work to family enrichment and family role salience
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2018-06-28) Kumar, Aneel; Channa, Khalil Ahmed; Bhutto, Niaz Ahmed; Ekonomická fakulta
    This study investigated the main and conditional indirect effects of emotional and instrumental family related social supports from coworkers on person and task focused interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICBs). We incorporated work to family enrichment as mediator and family role salience as moderator in conditional indirect effect paths. Primary data were collected through the survey questionnaire in dyads from the employees and their immediate supervisors (N = 401). The results showed that the main and conditional indirect effects of emotional and instrumental family related social supports from coworkers were positive and significant on both ICBs (person and task focused). Work to family enrichment was found as mediator and family role salience as moderator in conditional indirect effect paths. This study establishes work family enrichment as a bridge in the social exchange process. The resources of emotional and instrumental family related support form coworkers’ engendered work to family enrichment, which in turn created the sense of obligation in the employees to reciprocate by performing person and task focused interpersonal citizenship behavior in the workplace. Further the employees high on family role salience experienced work to family enrichment more, due to support resources, and in turn reciprocated more interpersonal citizenship behaviors. Overall, this study examined a moderated mediation model, by testing work to family enrichment as mediator and family role salience as the boundary condition.
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    Default rate in the Czech Republic depending on selected macroeconomic indicators
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2018-06-28) Stoklasová, Radmila; Ekonomická fakulta
    The aim of this article is to analyse which macroeconomic indicators affect the default rate in the Czech Republic in the long run and to create a model that would allow to describe the expected share of the default rate depending on the development of selected macroeconomic indicators on the basis of this analysis. The vector error correction model was used for this purpose to determine both long-term and short-term causal relationships. To create the resulting model, the econometric methodology was used, namely unit root tests, Granger causality for the determination of statistically significant relationships, information criteria and the Johansen cointegration test. The results show the validity of expected assumptions in the case of short-term relationships. There was a positive correlation between the unemployment rate and the default rate delayed by one quarter. A negative short-term relationship to the default rate was found in the case of real GDP and in the case of the Czech crown effective exchange rate index with a one-quarter delay. In the case of long-term relationships, surprising results were found regarding GDP and oil price development. As expected, it was found in the long run that the default rate is positively related to the unemployment and effective exchange rate of the Czech crown. The default rate indicator is one of the inputs of the stress testing model developed by the Czech National Bank. The model is based on the time series of the share of outstanding loans and the total amount of loans, and on selected macroeconomic indicators. Achieved empirical results are influenced by the fact that the Czech economy has undergone the period of currency crisis. The data used have the character of quarterly time series in the period from 2005Q1 to 2017Q1. EViews software version 9 was used for the calculations.
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    Quality evaluation of internet websites which represents the lithuanian basketball through consumers approach
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2018-06-28) Ūsas, Antanas; Jasinskas, Edmundas; Štreimikienė, Dalia; Švagždienė, Biruta; Simanavičius, Artūras; Ekonomická fakulta
    The information technology area is one of the fastest expanding and most customizable in daily activities. In 2015, 68% Lithuanian households had personal computers and internet access at home. The modern business is moving to virtual space. The exchange of business area develops a need to managerial decisions in a virtual space. All of the e-business areas have one main element – website. In Lithuanian basketball websites carried out aid communication, information dissemination, representation, sales features. Web site can serve as a key platform to help organizations deal with clients (Gonzalez et al., 2015). The Organization Web site becomes the face of organization and represent in cyberspace. Because of large number of websites and the competition, aspect of quality becomes increasingly important. Main questions are: in what consumers pay attention? How they understand the benefits of the website? What kind of emotional state caused by the Web site? Analyzing techniques of websites evaluation three different groups were separated – quality, usability and satisfaction. The best technique – quality, which is the most universal and informative defining with other techniques. The quality of internet websites which represented the Lithuanian basketball satisfies the needs of consumers. The emotion which was experienced during the research was statistically insignificant influence but emotions experienced the last surfing minutes have statistically significant influence. Users, who had experienced positive emotions in the end of surfing, tend to evaluate better the internet website. It is important for organizations to manage their internet website that visitors leave it with positive emotions.
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    Innovative activity and business cycle: Austria in the 19th and 20th century
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, 2018-06-28) Minárik, Pavol; Vokoun, Marek; Stellner, František; Ekonomická fakulta
    This paper focuses on the analysis of the relationship between business cycles and innovative activity in a small open economy. Small economies benefit from imports of foreign technologies through international trade and foreign investments and are subjects to significant exogenous shocks that impact their business cycle. The economic analysis is based on the demand and supply theories of innovation and economic fluctuations. Hypotheses about long term and short term (Granger) effects are tested on Austrian historical data (1852-1979) about the economic output (gross domestic product and industry production) and innovation output (granted patents). The econometric analysis utilizes vector error correction procedure to estimate time-series models of the economy. The results are interpreted in Austrian historical context. The economic-historical analysis suggests that there is no long-term relationship between business cycles and innovative activity between 1852 and 1937. The long-term relationship manifested only between 1948 and 1979. This relationship is very complex and influenced by the historical context, and it is not easy to grasp by the econometric analysis. In the short run, there is no compelling evidence trough-out the analyzed time period (1852-1979). However, we cannot fully reject the hypothesis suggesting a relationship between economic cycles and innovative activities. In the most recent period (1948-1979), we can observe a negative impact (Granger causality) of granted patents on the real GDP. Future research taking into account more countries using parametric as well as non-parametric approach could shed some light on the demand hypothesis in the pre-war and post-war development of small open economies. This paper showed that there is a long-term equilibrium between economic output and innovation activity. This result suggests that long term factors such as political stability are behind the complex relationship.