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    Optimising public transport to increase tourist flows
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Burda, Tomas; Zidova, Veronika; But, Tetiana; Ekonomická fakulta
    The paper proposes ways to optimise public transport in order to increase tourist flows to four well-known tourist destinations in the Czech Republic, namely Český Krumlov, Jánské Lázně, Lednice and Macocha, during the spring and autumn seasons. It was found that the quality of public transport infrastructure needed to be improved if tourist flows were to increase. It has been found that tourism development is entirely dependent on the quality of transport infrastructure in order to achieve an increase in tourist flows. A long-term marketing study was carried out in the destinations above with the aim of gathering data on the number of tourists in each of them, the availability of public transport and its timetables, and the needs of tourists in order to improve public transport service. Research has shown that most tourists use secondary transport. This is due to convenience, lack of time, increased comfort, personal requirements and lack of provision of public transport. In addition, there are problems with rail service to some tourist destinations, and the intensity of the bus network varies, which is not convenient for tourists from different population groups. It was found that the capacity of the bus service to the selected destinations is sufficient and can positively influence the growth of tourist flows without increasing logistics costs just by changing the organisation of public transport. Based on the competitive advantage analysis results for the four destinations studied, the weaknesses and strengths of rail and bus transports were identified. Most tourists report that rail transport is more convenient mainly because of its well-connected transport service and affordable prices compared to aeroplanes or cars. It was found that the number of passengers is influenced by the geographic component of the terrain; two destinations (Jánské Lázně and Macocha) are located in the mountains and have a limited infrastructure network due to the undulating terrain, and thus not all means of public transport reach these destinations. It is verified that Český Krumlov is the most optimal of the destinations studied. The study revealed a relationship between the quality of transport infrastructure and the increase in tourist flows to the tourist destinations studied. We propose to develop a model to optimise the transport service in cooperation with a network of tourist information centres. To refine it, further surveys need to be carried out in different directions during the summer and winter seasons.
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    Extended model of mobile shopping acceptance: An empirical study of consumer behaviour
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Stefko, Robert; Gavurova, Beata; Olearova, Maria; Bacik, Radovan; Nebesky, Lubomir; Ekonomická fakulta
    Although the popularity of mobile commerce is on the rise, mobile shopping is still not widely accepted in Slovakia. Therefore, research and knowledge in this area is insufficient. Based on two research models which explain human behavior (theory of reasoned action) and how the user accepts new technologies (technology acceptance model), the presented study proposes and tests a conceptual model combining the mentioned models and new, stimulating factors (customized offers and price benefits) in order to design a holistic model for predicting consumer behavior with regard to the acceptance of mobile shopping. In the first step of the research, we used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to extract the predicted factors and verify the validity and reliability of the research tool – a questionnaire. The main research was conducted on a sample of 627 students from Slovak universities (part-time study). Using the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we performed a measurement model evaluation, and then, using the structural equation modeling – partial least squares (SEM – PLS) method, we evaluated and quantified the expected effects of the investigated factors. These new, stimulating factors, integrated into the theoretical framework of existing models, have been shown to act as direct and indirect predictors of the intention to mobile shopping. However, perceived usefulness proved to be the strongest predictor. The intention to mobile shopping is also significantly influenced by the attitude to mobile shopping, which is also determined by the new factor customized offers. The results the research arrives at may be beneficial for businesses, as they may reduce the costs associated with the creation of mobile shopping channels from an economic point of view and may increase their market competitiveness.
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    The CEO characteristics and Romanian banks performance
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Bunea, Mariana; Ionescu Feleaga, Liliana; Ionescu, Bogdan Stefan; Ekonomická fakulta
    The main objective of this research is to identify to what extent the characteristics of the CEO (chief executive officer) influence the financial performance of banks within the Romanian banking system. The sample under investigation includes all 21 Romanian banks, and the analyzed period included the financial years related to the last 5 financial years (2018–2022). Regarding these characteristics, aspects such as age, gender diversity, education, nationality, and duality were included in the research, the financial performance of the banking system being measured through the ROA (return on assets) and ROE (return on equity) indicators, which are often used in the literature, including control variables such as the size of the bank, assessed by the total value of bank assets, the share of debts in total assets and the share of capital in total assets. Regarding the duality of the CEO, this is the practice of the same person holding both the position of chairman of the board of directors and that of executive manager. The authors tried to find the answer to the question: Is there a correlation between CEO characteristics and the financial performance of the banks, and if the answer is yes, to what extent are these correlations significant? To carry out this research, the authors used the SPSS software, the research methodology being predominantly quantitative, including descriptive methods, correlation analyses and regression models. The results of the research indicate that the financial performance of the banks operating within the banking system in Romania (measured by the ROA and ROE indicators) is influenced by the nationality and education of the persons holding the position of CEO but also by the size of the banks, appreciated by the value of their total banking assets.
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    Gamification in management: Positive and negative aspects
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Kačerauskas, Tomas; Sederevičiūtė-Pačiauskienė, Živilė; Šliogerienė, Jolita; Ekonomická fakulta
    The phenomenon of gamification is analysed, identifying positive aspects of gamification, risks and problems. The paper adopts a method of systematic critical literature analysis in English, German, and Russian. We provide the most relevant gamification definitions classified into two main groups, fundamental and practical. The confusion of these groups or ignorance of one causes particular problems in understanding gamification. We face two levels of gamification in different areas of business management. It is the so-called meta- or macro-level and applied or micro-level. The paper aims to demonstrate the broader context of gamification in management by revealing the phenomenon’s positive and negative aspects. To reach the aim, five objectives were defined: i) to show the broader context of gamification in management; ii) to reveal the problems, risks, or even negative aspects of gamification in management; iii) to appeal to the practical issues how and in what areas to use gamification; iv) to show a broader cultural and philosophical context behind the manager interpretation of gamification; v) to introduce the discourse of gamification as an integrated theoretical approach that could reveal essential aspects of management. Gamification has both positive and negative aspects in all areas of management. On the one hand, gamification increases productivity and improves service, contributes to innovative participatory thinking and action, improves internal control, coordination, communication, collaboration, and creativity, increases motivation and pleasure at work, develops the soft skills of employees and reduces costs, as well as contributes to better acclimatisation. On the other hand, gamification commercialises human relations, causes novelty effects, elicits desired behaviour and predicts job performance, transforms organisational culture in unpredictable and counterintuitive ways, results in stress and anxiety, lowers self-esteem, causes exhaustion, conflict, and incomplete knowledge, serves as a means of domination and mobbing, and finally increases free-riding and work intimidation.
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    Investigating self-efficacy and behavioural bias on investment decisions
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Srinivasan, Kuppusamy; Karthikeyan, Parthasarathy; Ekonomická fakulta
    The determinants of irrational decisions on the stock market are found in numerous empirical studies. However, self-efficacy and behavioural biases have a sturdy influence on stock market investment decisions. Behavioural biases are formed with heuristics, prospect theory and herding effect concerning stock market investments. Self-efficacy is independent of behavioural biases but is closely connected with controlling behavioural intentions in decision-making. The research was conducted to find the influence of self-efficacy and behavioural biases in the decision of stock market investment. The study was conducted with 250 individual investors and applied the SEM technique. Findings indicated that heuristics had a positive relationship with behavioural biases, but behavioural biases reported a negative relationship with the herding effect and prospect theory. Heuristics were mostly developed on the intrinsic strength of individual investors; therefore, investors believe heuristics will be a better decision-making tool than prospect theory or the herding effect. Prospect theory is shaped and influenced by regret aversion, loss aversion, self-control and mental accounting. Financial literacy, risk tolerance, and peer support profoundly develop the self-efficacy of investors to make profitable investment decisions. Self-efficacy is formed by risk tolerance, financial literacy and peer support in the stock market investment decision and identified the evidence of individual investors not making rational decisions and facing one or more behavioural biases and self-efficacy factors. The study finds the combined effect of behavioural biases and self-efficacy in stock market investment decisions, which have significant implications among individual investors, particularly in emerging markets.