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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Berger, Aleš; Ekonomická fakulta
    In life, everyone faces personalized conditions such as ageing, disease, and impairments in hearing, vision, or mobility. In addition, some individuals are born with disabilities that can limit their participation in various areas of life, including work, education, and daily activities. Assistive technology (AT) is a field that aims to provide tools and resources to facilitate the needs of individuals with disabilities or impairments. This article reviews the latest advances in AT, focusing on using Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to provide innovative solutions. The article discusses the deployment of assistive devices in various areas, such as building access, information access, and work and education participation. The goal of this research is to highlight the potential of AT to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities and to provide an overview of the current state of the field. The article also discusses the use of IoT-based solutions in assistive technology and identifies promising areas for future development and deployment. By providing a comprehensive review of the latest advancements in AT, this research aims to contribute to the ongoing efforts to enhance functional capacities and improve the quality of life for individuals with disabilities.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Bauerová, Radka; Starzyczná, Halina; Zapletalová, Šárka; Ekonomická fakulta
    The acceleration of the digitalisation of grocery shopping is an important trend that shows that this way of sourcing groceries is increasingly accepted by customers. Uncovering, understanding, and describing the differences between online grocery shoppers is interesting from a scientific point of view and a practical one. Correctly targeting a specific customer segment increases the very effectiveness of marketing communication by spending the cost of communicating with those correctly targeted customers that are valuable to the company. Therefore, this paper explores the behaviour of customers when shopping online and tries to find similarities in this behaviour. The aim of the paper is to generate customer segments of online grocery shoppers that provide a more comprehensive insight by reflecting on their shopping behaviour, personality traits and characteristics, loyalty, overall satisfaction with online grocery shopping in the current retailer, and frequency of social media usage. An online questionnaire survey was conducted with a panel of respondents from the IPSOS research agency to obtain primary data. Data were analysed using factor and cluster analysis. These analyses resulted in the creation of a segmentation that identified five main segments of online grocery shoppers. The constructed combined segmentation divides shoppers into five segments: quality-oriented shoppers (18.9%), influential utilitarians (21.7%), loyal traditionalists (16.4%), satisfied conditional loyalists (14.9%), and movable eco-sympathizers (28.1%). Then these category types are characterised in terms of their most salient characteristics. The results of this study show the variables that influence customers in their decision-making process. Outcomes increase knowledge about online grocery shopping behaviour, motives, and purchase requirements. These are also beneficial for grocery retailers for better targeting or fostering loyalty.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Cantero-Saiz, María; Torre-Olmo, Begoña; Sanfilippo-Azofra, Sergio; Ekonomická fakulta
    The aim of this article is to analyse how sustainable banking affects the transmission of monetary policy through the bank lending channel. We also quantify how these effects are determined by the financial strength of each bank. These objectives, which have not been studied previously, represent an important contribution because real sustainable concerns in banking did not emerged until recently, mainly with the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals that should be reached by 2030. Since then, some studies have focused on the effects of sustainability on aspects such as bank profitability, risk or efficiency, but none has considered the effects on the bank lending channel of monetary policy. In fact, central banks have incorporated sustainability criteria into their agenda and are analyzing how to include these criteria in the monetary policy framework, so we contribute even more by shedding some light on these aspects and how they depend on the financial strength of the banking sector. We used quarterly data from 79 listed banks from the OECD between 2016 and 2019 (947 observations) and we found that the bank lending channel is operative either for banks with very low sustainability ratings or a weak financial position. When sustainability ratings increase and financial strength becomes moderate, the bank lending channel is ineffective and monetary shocks do not affect lending. For banks with certain sustainable compromises and a strong financial position, the impact of monetary shocks on lending is the opposite of the one that the bank lending channel proposes, and this impact is more intense as sustainability ratings increase. Finally, our results also show that increases in central bank assets boost lending only for banks with low or moderate sustainability ratings, regardless of their financial strength. Overall, these results suggest that more sustainable banks are less dependent on monetary policy decisions.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Heckenbergerová, Jana; Honková, Irena; Ekonomická fakulta
    The optimal capital structure is a key precondition for business, even though the task of defining the optimal capital structure can be difficult. Previous studies present many different and mutually contradictory factors that should be considered with respect to managerial strategic financial decisions. The first part of the presented contribution summarises the effects of the most frequent capital structure determinants and reviews the world’s most important theories about the behaviour of enterprises when deciding on capital structure. The aim of our contribution is the analysis of capital structure behaviour in the Czech environment. Fundamental capital structure theory is revealed by statistical hypotheses testing. Moreover, we are mainly targeting significant determinants of capital structure. The results help us to create general recommendations for the financial management of Czech companies. In the scope of our study, there are approximately a thousand national financial statements of Czech companies from the most important sectors of economic activity for the period 2016–2019. The correlation analysis with partial correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression analysis was utilised to determine the effects and significance of the individual determinants. Data show that Czech companies do not prefer debt financing recommended by some capital structure theories. Their financial management behaviour corresponds to pecking order theory with insufficient utilisation of tax shield. Sectorwise analyses prove only one exception; motor vehicles wholesale, retail trade, repair and maintenance sector generally prefers financing by debt. Based on the literature review, we selected six significant determinants of capital structure: size, return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), tangibility, asset growth and duration. Advanced statistical analyses show the power and influence of each determinant on capital structure and their mutual relations. Autocorrelations can negatively affect the results of regression analyses. We can conclude that the capital structure of Czech companies is mainly influenced by tangibility and ROA.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Muftiasa, Afdol; Wibowo, Lili Adi; Hurriyati, Ratih; Rahayu, Agus; Ekonomická fakulta
    In the post COVID-2019 era, companies are making a variety of changes to boost their performance. Companies need to understand that rivalry is for physical and intangible assets, such as intellectual capital, when they want to thrive and succeed in the market. Research on the relationship between intellectual capital and firm performance has become a study that has received wide attention from researchers from various disciplines. The purpose of this research was to analyze how intellectual capital, comprising human, structural and relational capital, affected firm performance in the telecommunications sector during post COVID-2019 era. Quantitative research using a questionnaire survey was used in this study. A valid research instrument was utilized to survey 115 employees from all telecommunications companies in Indonesia listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2019–2021. Human, structural, and relational capital were hypothesized to have a positive effect on company performance, and their relationship was investigated. Intellectual capital was found to have a statistically significant and positively impacting relationship with firm performance. Recommendations are then made for researchers and practitioners. This research has implications for practitioners. Practitioners can concentrate efforts on the three main components of intellectual capital management. Furthermore, managers in companies, especially telecommunications companies, understand how intellectual resources evolve following current developments and will ultimately positively impact performance. This is one of the very few studies examining the relationship between intellectual capital and firm performance in the Indonesian telecommunications industry and the first to investigate this relationship with perceptual measures in Indonesia.