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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Gatica-Neira, Francisco; Ramos-Maldonado, Mario; Ekonomická fakulta
    In the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution this paper analyzes the factors that explain the degree of diffusion of some Information Technologies (ICTs) enabling Industries 4.0 in Chilean companies. In this group we find technologies such as: Big data, RIFD (Radio frequency identification), Cloud computing, ERP (Enterprise requirements planning), CRM (Customer relationship management), SCM (Supply chain management) and Computer security. Through the analysis of clusters, orderly logistic regression and decision tree, based on 2,081 companies reported in the Survey of Access and Use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Companies 2018 (MINECON, 2020). It is concluded that there is an important difference in technological adoption based on size from the volume of sales and the amount of direct labor. It is also noted that companies that subcontract and at the same time have ICT professionals are more likely to invest in this type of technology. We detected a “technological staggering” where companies begin by incorporating Cloud Computing and ERP and then increase in the number and complexity of the technologies used, achieving greater synergies and benefits in digital transformation. It is necessary to implement mechanisms for monitoring technical change to generate public policies aimed at leveling technological adoption in small and medium-sized enterprises. This work provides a global and intersectoral view of the process of diffusion of enabling technologies for Industry 4.0 through multivariate analysis techniques and data science, being a contribution to what is currently worked on focused on the study of business cases, on the monitoring of a specific technology or on an analysis of a specific productive sector.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Paudel, Tulsi; Li, Wen Ya; Kim, Yeong Gug; Ekonomická fakulta
    Tourism has a substantial environmental impact, and nature-based tourism is particularly vulnerable to tourists’ activities. Individuals must be aware of the consequential ecological effects during nature-based tourism activities such as trekking. Trekking is a widespread nature-based tourism activity in fragile mountainous and hilly regions. The trekkers’ activities extensively affect the conservation of vegetation along the trail. Therefore, it is essential to study trekkers’ attitudes, intentions, and behavior towards the environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the pro-environmental behaviors of trekkers. The goal-directed behavior (MGB) model framework and a new ecological paradigm scale (NEP) were integrated to examine trekkers’ environmental decision-making process. The new ecological paradigm (NEP) scale measured trekkers’ environmental concerns, whereas the model of goal-directed behavior (MGB) explored environmentally friendly trekking intentions. The extended model analyzed 310 responses from trekkers who had trekking experience in Nepal. Statistical analyses, such as confirmatory factor analysis, descriptive analysis, reliability, and validity test, were performed with SPSS 24.0. Furthermore, structural equation modeling was conducted using AMOS 22.0 to test the significance of the developed hypotheses. This study revealed that trekkers are concerned about the environment and are aware of the earth’s resource limitations. Moreover, the significant role of emotion in the decision-making process was identified. The perceived behavioral control influenced both the desire and intention of environmentally friendly trekking. Additionally, desire significantly influenced the intention to perform environmentally friendly activities. However, the trekker’s attitude and subjective norms did not correlate substantially with desire. The obtained results indicate that the proposed extended model helps to understand the environmental behavior of trekkers. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are also discussed.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Dincă, Violeta Mihaela; Dima, Alina Mihaela; Ekonomická fakulta
    The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown, along with the social distancing rules imposed by governments around the world, have caused major changes in the publishing industry and, therefore, in the book consumption patterns. The main goal of this paper is to identify the changes in the purchasing habits of book consumers within two different frameworks of motivations: utilitarian and hedonic – both studied during the COVID-19 pandemic. A model was developed to study the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic as a circumstantial impact, because it implicated the temporary shutdown of physical bookshops, the uncertainty of contracting the virus by visiting the shops once they re-opened along with the upgrades that online bookshops developed during the pandemic to attract customers. Data were gathered from 410 Romanian consumers by applying an online survey. Multivariate data analysis applied to the model showed that the COVID-19 pandemic context had a positive and significant influence on the customers’ intents of online book purchasing. Moreover, while hedonic reasons exerted a compelling influence on the customers’ intents to buy books online, the association between utilitarian reasons and online buying intents is positive, but insignificant. These results could support all stakeholders within the book market, such as publishing firms and online bookshops to strengthen their online presence – to develop their websites, their social media pages, as well as expand their advertising operations through different channels. The outcomes of this research are important and useful also for the academic environment, as the changes within the book market and the evolution of book consumption behavior influence research and academic writing overall.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Vallušová, Anna; Kuráková, Ivana; Lacová, Žaneta; Ekonomická fakulta
    The V4 countries have achieved different levels of digital transformation due to distinctions in their individual technical infrastructure and human capital characteristics. The success of digital transformation cannot be measured solely by the achieved level of digitalization; the distribution of favorable outcomes of internet use within a country should also be considered. The level of digital skills and usage patterns differ among social groups, therefore capability to translate internet access and use to tangible (offline) benefits varies. The aim of our paper is twofold. Firstly, we quantify the extent of the digital inequality in terms of usage gap in the V4 countries. We indicate the dynamics of inequality by comparing the development of such inequality between the years 2015 and 2019. Secondly, we identify socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors, which are connected to differences in internet usage patterns and therefore affect the capability of an individual to benefit from internet use. In common with other studies carried out in the Western world, we show that internet access and possession of formal digital skills are not the most important determinant of probability of being a digital beneficiary; individual characteristics, especially education and age, predict the probability of being a digital beneficiary to a higher degree of accuracy. As to the extent of digital inequality in the individual countries, we come to conclusion that although the V4 countries are relatively homogeneous concerning socioeconomic inequalities, the level of digital inequality among them differs – Hungary being somewhat unequal as compared to the most equal Czechia. In all four countries, equality increased within an observed period.
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    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Dvořáková Líšková, Zuzana; Sagapova, Nikola; Buchtele, Roman; Ekonomická fakulta
    Brownfields and greenfields are examples of areas that report partial, however rather significant changes in the spatial organization of localities of economic and sometimes social changes. A large part of them emerged in areas originally used for industrial production and other economic activities, including former agricultural primary production. In the case of investor interest and with the support of the public sector, they can be transformed back into an area of growth and prosperity; which is discussed as the main motivation for writing the paper. The cost of reusing of such areas is in many cases very high and it is therefore necessary to find a suitable methodological tool to assess the suitability of revitalization and cultivation. The paper presents a newly proposed method for evaluating brownfields and greenfields in terms of their value potential and the way they can be further effectively utilised. Practical verification of the method was carried out at two localities (a brownfield in the village of Želeč and a greenfield in the village of Vidov) from the South Bohemian Region. Both test sites were comparable in terms of their possible future use (e.g., housing, civic amenities, greening). The potential of the tested sites was determined by means of the preference index and the most effective solutions for both areas of interest were proposed. Both localities could be interesting for investors, entrepreneurs and people with higher income. The obtained results demonstrate the suitability of the proposed method for the evaluation and decision-making on the further use of brownfields and greenfields in the Czech Republic.