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    Assessment of the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on the EU economic growth
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Remeikiene, Rita; Rozsa, Zoltan; Gaspareniene, Ligita; Pěnčík, Jan; Ekonomická fakulta
    Although international trade is an incontestable driver of economic development, scientific literature still lacks the studies to assess the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on the EU economic growth. The agricultural sector is treated as specific in comparison to other economic sectors as the EU subsidisation policies causes distorted competition in both local and global agricultural markets. The main purpose of this article is to assess the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on the economic growth of EU28. The results of the correlation and regression analyses have revealed that the international trade in agricultural products (in particular, section I and III products) contributes only insignificant part, to the economic growth of EU28 through the following indicators: GDP in market prices, self-employment, employment in the agricultural sector, labour force rate, subsidies and other transfers. The results have also disclosed that while analysing the impact of the international trade in agricultural products on economic growth, there is no necessity to research export and import volumes in separate as agricultural export and import show nearly the same (only with insignificant value differences) determinants of economic growth promotion. Another important conclusion is that the international trade in agricultural products mainly comprises the trade in live animals and animal products (meat and edible meat offal, fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates, dairy produce, birds' eggs, natural honey, edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included, and products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included) as well as animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products, prepared edible fats, and animal or vegetable waxes.
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    Evaluation of the usability of selected innovation concepts for managing innovation activities
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Peterková, Jindra; Zapletalová, Šárka; Ekonomická fakulta
    A significant number of enterprise owners and managers realize an importance of innovations for the future existence of their business and its development. It appears that in theory and business practice a number of innovation concepts can be found, however for managers and business owners it is difficult to be knowledgeable in innovation concepts in order to use them in practice. Innovation concepts represent solutions outline, which react to the business ability to innovate. Each innovation concept is different in the area of focusing on innovation problem and way of detailization. Chosen innovation concepts can be applied when solving following problems: Identifying the innovation potential, organizational readiness for innovation and achieved levels of innovation climate, or the actual implementation of the innovation process and the evaluation of innovation. It is worth noting that concrete innovation concepts are not at the same level of usability in practice, some of them need to be better specified for application in business. A set of innovation concepts was created and evaluated the usability of individual concepts in the enterprise. The evaluation was carried out by qualitative analysis using selected criteria, which were determined by an expert group with the assistance of the researcher. Variants of usability of innovation concepts were defined subsequently. At the same time, decision-making model based on the Analytic Hierarchical Process was designed and applied in order to classify innovation concepts. Decision-making model can be used by managers for the purpose of innovations management while choosing the concept of innovation.
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    Use of the DEA method to verify the performance model for hospitals
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Kocisova, Kristina; Hass-Symotiuk, Maria; Kludacz-Alessandri, Magdalena; Ekonomická fakulta
    This paper employs the method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to compare the relative efficiency of Polish hospitals in meso perspective. It means that the indicators selected to measure the performance of hospitals were aggregated at the regional level (a level of 16 Polish provinces). As the hospitals are a critical part of the healthcare system, they are increasingly the subject of analyses aimed at defining, measuring, and improving their performance. Therefore, in the methodology part, we present the DEA as the method for efficiency measurement together with its advantages and limitations. The study attempts to find out which provinces can be used as models and illustrated the areas where inefficient units need to be improved. The hospital input measures included are the Average time of hospitalisation (in days), Average costs of day hospital treatment. The output measures included are the Average number of patients per bed per year, the Share of accredited hospitals as a proportion of the number of all hospitals, net profit per physician. The DEA models are solved using the computer program Frontier Analyst, Version 4. We found that five provinces were efficient and eleven were not, where the efficiency score varied from 76.2% to 100%. Provinces such as Lower Silesia Province, Lublin Province, Lubuskie Province, Świętokrzyskie Province, and Warmia-Masuria Province were the best performers in that they maximised both quantitative and qualitative outcomes. The identification of the strongest and the weakest within provinces could be beneficial in improving the efficiency and performance of the hospitals. The result identifies the inefficient provinces that can improve their efficiency by making the efficient provinces as their role model. This paper is the first published study that benchmarks the performance of healthcare services in Poland.
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    The role of country governance on value-added tax and inequality
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Chan, Sok-Gee; Ramly, Zulkufly; Ekonomická fakulta
    Income inequality is a growing concern for regulators because it brings adverse consequences towards social stability, institutional stability and economic performance. One of the popular ways to reduce income inequality is through the implementation of Value Added Tax (VAT) despite of many criticisms on its regressive nature. Hence, using a wide data range from 1984 to 2014, we study the impact of VAT on income inequality in both developed and developing countries. Besides, this is the first study that seeks to focus on the moderating role of country governance in enhancing the effect of VAT on income inequality. We use the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to overcome the endogeneity, autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity issues. The results suggest that the VAT reduces income inequality but the positive effect is contingent upon the existence of a set of good country governance. Countries that have higher quality of bureaucracy, greater democratic accountability, high government stability, effective law and order, low political risk and favourable socioeconomic conditions stand to benefit more from the VAT system in terms of narrowing the income inequality. Therefore, we conclude that better institutions improve the tax collection and public service delivery, which is a crucial element in achieving the economic objective of narrowing the income gap between the wealthy and the poor. This is particularly true in developing countries. Further, the governments in developing countries need to effectively manage the degree of socioeconomic pressure that could distract them from implementing social and economic policies to eradicate poverty and raise the income level of the poor segment of society.
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    A nonlinear dynamic model to international tourism demand in Spanish Mediterranean coasts
    (Technická Univerzita v Liberci, ) Albaladejo, Isabel; González-Martínez, Maribel; Ekonomická fakulta
    Spanish Mediterranean coasts are a consolidated tourist destination and enjoy growing demand. These coasts receive the highest number of international arrivals in Spain. This paper has been developed to gain a better knowledge of the determinants of this international tourism demand. A nonlinear dynamic model that analyses how previous tourists can affect tourism demand decisions is proposed. This nonlinear dynamic specification extends the standard dynamic equation for tourism demand to include interaction effects between previous tourists and two destination characteristics: the quality of the tourism services and tourist congestion. Both characteristics are important to define the reputation or attractiveness of the destination. We test the model using panel data from the 11 provinces which make up the Spanish Mediterranean coasts, and the 7 European countries which are the main origin markets for the period 2005-2015. The system GMM procedure is applied to estimate the econometric model. The econometric results show evidence of strong persistence in international tourism demand. Previous tourists have an important positive and non-constant effect, and this effect is positively influenced by the quality of the tourism services, and negatively by tourist congestion. Therefore, the effect of previous tourists is not constant but varies across provinces and over time. This effect is stronger in provinces with high quality tourism services and lower congestion. Additionally, the impact of previous tourists has not remained constant over time, but has increased in the Mediterranean provinces since 2005. The investments realized in quality and quantity of hotel services during this period have enhanced their reputation.