Číslo 1/2023

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    Defektologie učící? Formování české speciální pedagogiky v letech 1953–1964
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Fapšo, Marek; Randák, Jan; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    In 1953, Miloš Sovák, a physician and university teacher, published the theoretical foundations of defectology, a science focused on individuals with physical, mental and sensory disabilities. Some contemporaries consider Sovák’s presentation to be the beginning of modern Czech special education. Sovák treated social relations as the most important component of an actor’s environment in which they find themselves through upbringing and education and in which they sustain themselves. In simple terms: through the work performance in the context of the building of socialism in 1950s Czechoslovakia. After the advent of the communist dictatorship, defectology was to replace interwar remedial pedagogy and paedopathology, although Sovák developed earlier views published during the 1930s and 1940s, including the period of Nazi occupation. Although defectology was firmly rooted in current socio-political contexts and represented a time-contingent social practice, the reproduction of its expert knowledge was limited by a number of external circumstances, including the closure of an independent university department, the absence of a departmental journal, or the reduction of its curriculum in undergraduate studies.
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    Reality as a Basis of Education to the Good in Josef Pieper’s Works
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Nemec, Rastislav; Blaščíková, Andrea; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    The contemporary educational system is oriented on performance and productivity. German philosopher and sociologist Josef Pieper (1904–1997) was one of the big critics of this orientation and a defender of holistic education. The aim of this study is to analyse two of Pieper’s essays dedicated to education to the good – Total Education and Reality and the Good (both 1935) – and to present his concept of the “holistic education” that is based on them. In these two essays, Pieper analyses education as a formation of the spiritual soul in its ability to know and to act: knowledge is born as a result of our openness to reality in its divine root, and action is a response to this known good. Pieper identifies the educated man as being constantly open to the totality of reality, questioning unilateral, normative, performance-oriented and “specialized” education.
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    Mathilde Vaerting (1884–1977) und ihr (unzeitgemäßer) Beitrag zu Pädagogik und Macht
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Berner, Esther; Hofbauer, Susann; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    The article deals with the first German female educational scientist Mathilde Vaerting and her analytical contributions on topics such as sex, gender and the role of power, as well as to the question of power and violence in pedagogy, which are still relevant today. The starting point of her considerations is a comprehensive sociology of power and an intensive examination of the psychology of gender. Her engagement with corresponding pedagogical questions (e.g. co-education) is strongly influenced by the contemporary progressive education movement, in which she actively participated. Her analyses of power and domination and their role in the relationship between the gender, but also between teachers and students and in other pedagogical interaction, are in many parts inspired by her own life and career experiences as a female scholar in the period around and after the First World War. Although she was the first woman to be appointed to a professorship in educational science in Germany in 1923, her name hardly appears in the historiography of the discipline to this day. Targeted exclusionary strategies by her male colleagues, supported by a male-dominated politics and academic culture, had made her an academic outsider during her lifetime and for the time after.
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    Volksschullehrer-Wissen sammeln und verbreiten. Das Deutsche Schulmuseum bzw. die Deutsche Lehrerbücherei in Berlin 1876–1914
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Mattes, Monika; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    The article examines the book collection of the German School Museum (since 1908 German Teachers’ Library) on the one hand according to its ‘content’ and on the other hand according to its social and cultural functionality for the elementary school teachers organized in the Berlin Teachers’ Association. How did the collections contribute to the socio- cultural self-assertion and professional identity of elementary school teachers in the German Empire? How and with what profile was the German Teachers’ Library able to establish itself as an actor in the field of pedagogical knowledge around 1900, i.e. in the years when the need for knowledge for the ‘Volksschule’ changed profoundly due to rapid social and economic-technological modernization?
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    Professionalism vs. Ideologization in the Hungarian Candidate Dissertations in Educational Science in the 1970s
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Czabaji Horváth, Attila; Albrecht, Zsófia; Daru, Andrea; Szente, Dorina; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    After World War II, the Soviet model was introduced in the countries of the Eastern Bloc, including Hungary, not only in the political, economic, and social spheres, but also in the field of science, and within it, in the system of qualification. The system introduced – which remained in place until 1993 – was aimed at creating a new intellectual class, so candidates had to meet political as well as professional requirements. In a pilot study on the process of knowledge construction in the next generation of scientists, we analyzed reviewers’ opinions on doctoral dissertations in the 1970s. The theoretical framework was provided by Stichweh and Becker’s notion of discipline and Bourdieu’s field theory on the functioning of scientific disciplines. Qualitative content analysis was used to process 20 reviews. Although the candidates had to meet both professional and political criteria, the referees put more emphasis on professionalism. The analyzed reviewers’ opinions of the show, that those within the scientific field already had more flexibility than those wishing to enter it, but that this meant only relative research freedom.