Číslo 1/2023

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    Defektologie učící? Formování české speciální pedagogiky v letech 1953–1964
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Fapšo, Marek; Randák, Jan; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    In 1953, Miloš Sovák, a physician and university teacher, published the theoretical foundations of defectology, a science focused on individuals with physical, mental and sensory disabilities. Some contemporaries consider Sovák’s presentation to be the beginning of modern Czech special education. Sovák treated social relations as the most important component of an actor’s environment in which they find themselves through upbringing and education and in which they sustain themselves. In simple terms: through the work performance in the context of the building of socialism in 1950s Czechoslovakia. After the advent of the communist dictatorship, defectology was to replace interwar remedial pedagogy and paedopathology, although Sovák developed earlier views published during the 1930s and 1940s, including the period of Nazi occupation. Although defectology was firmly rooted in current socio-political contexts and represented a time-contingent social practice, the reproduction of its expert knowledge was limited by a number of external circumstances, including the closure of an independent university department, the absence of a departmental journal, or the reduction of its curriculum in undergraduate studies.
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    Volksschullehrer-Wissen sammeln und verbreiten. Das Deutsche Schulmuseum bzw. die Deutsche Lehrerbücherei in Berlin 1876–1914
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Mattes, Monika; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    The article examines the book collection of the German School Museum (since 1908 German Teachers’ Library) on the one hand according to its ‘content’ and on the other hand according to its social and cultural functionality for the elementary school teachers organized in the Berlin Teachers’ Association. How did the collections contribute to the socio- cultural self-assertion and professional identity of elementary school teachers in the German Empire? How and with what profile was the German Teachers’ Library able to establish itself as an actor in the field of pedagogical knowledge around 1900, i.e. in the years when the need for knowledge for the ‘Volksschule’ changed profoundly due to rapid social and economic-technological modernization?
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    „Natürliches Wachstum“ in einer bedrohlichen Welt – der Monte Verità als Inkubationsraum eines neuen Erzieherbildes
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Klepper, Beate; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    In the early years of the 20th century a small community or colony on Monte Verità near Ascona at the Lago Maggiore became refuge and encounter for different representatives of the Lebensreform. Main issues culminated here, and here the representatives conflicted with each other. Controversial response proposals uncovered the fundamental divergencies of a naturalistic world view. Thus, Monte Verità spotlights pedagogical problems in the context of Lebensreform and Reformpädagogik. Based on the writings of the respective protagonists and their environment, and referring to repeated visits to the Monte Verità, we propose a reflection of its development and central motives and deconstruct critically the understanding of the child and the new conception of the educator on the ‘Mount of Truth’. Ida Hofmann, as one of the main founders, individualist, and naturalist Gusto Gräser and the psychoanalyst and anarchist Otto Gross shaped essentially Monte Verità and formulated the motives that still nowadays keep floating like a will-o’-the-wisp in the models of Reformpädagogik. Education is always tempted to ‘tame’ contingent structures, to anticipate an uncertain future and to define clearly the role of the educator. Frequently teleological suppositions sneak into the educational praxis and confer the present action an image of validity and offer the educator tranquilizing certainties. Monte Verità represents a clear example for this. To understand pedagogical thinking as focusing on growth with open results, therefore guided by an anthropological perspective, requires a clear decision for continued questioning of subtle basic presuppositions. Instead of mental certainties, the search for always new, concrete, child-centered educational action, in short, an education that parts “from the Child”.
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    The Action of the Saint Sava Society on the Formation of Identity among Serbs in Old Serbia and Macedonia
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Nikolova, Maja; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    The Serbs in Old Serbia and Macedonia in the late 19th century, in national terms, were not recognized by the Turkish authorities. Their position in this region made it difficult for the Bulgarian and Greek propaganda and armed troops of Albanians, so the Serbs had to struggle to defend themselves and defend their national identity. One aspect of this struggle was the educational and cultural activity reflected in the establishment and development of the Serbian primary and secondary schools, the establishment of bookstores, and church-school communities. Support in all this was given by t he educational institutions, which had the task of minimizing foreign influences and using the potentials at their disposal to achieve national integrity. Thanks to their existence, at least for a short time, it seemed that the prevailing attitude was that the Serbs in those areas at the same time formed a bridge and an insurmountable gap between East and West. Besides the State government, support in dealing with educational issues was given by the Saint Sava Association established at the initiative of Svetomir Nikolajevic, professor of History and Literature at the Great School. Academic, political, and national activities of the Association were expressed through the establishment and work of Saint Sava evening, Preparatory and Theological-Teaching School in Belgrade.
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    Professionalism vs. Ideologization in the Hungarian Candidate Dissertations in Educational Science in the 1970s
    (Národní pedagogické muzeum a knihovna J. A. Komenského, ) Czabaji Horváth, Attila; Albrecht, Zsófia; Daru, Andrea; Szente, Dorina; Technická univerzita v Liberci
    After World War II, the Soviet model was introduced in the countries of the Eastern Bloc, including Hungary, not only in the political, economic, and social spheres, but also in the field of science, and within it, in the system of qualification. The system introduced – which remained in place until 1993 – was aimed at creating a new intellectual class, so candidates had to meet political as well as professional requirements. In a pilot study on the process of knowledge construction in the next generation of scientists, we analyzed reviewers’ opinions on doctoral dissertations in the 1970s. The theoretical framework was provided by Stichweh and Becker’s notion of discipline and Bourdieu’s field theory on the functioning of scientific disciplines. Qualitative content analysis was used to process 20 reviews. Although the candidates had to meet both professional and political criteria, the referees put more emphasis on professionalism. The analyzed reviewers’ opinions of the show, that those within the scientific field already had more flexibility than those wishing to enter it, but that this meant only relative research freedom.