Microscopic Techniques for the Analysis of Micro and Nanostructures of Biopolymers and Their Derivatives

Natural biopolymers, a class of materials extracted from renewable sources, is garnering interest due to growing concerns over environmental safety; biopolymers have the advantage of biocompatibility and biodegradability, an imperative requirement. The synthesis of nanoparticles and nanofibers from biopolymers provides a green platform relative to the conventional methods that use hazardous chemicals. However, it is challenging to characterize these nanoparticles and fibers due to the variation in size, shape, and morphology. In order to evaluate these properties, microscopic techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are essential. With the advent of new biopolymer systems, it is necessary to obtain insights into the fundamental structures of these systems to determine their structural, physical, and morphological properties, which play a vital role in defining their performance and applications. Microscopic techniques perform a decisive role in revealing intricate details, which assists in the appraisal of microstructure, surface morphology, chemical composition, and interfacial properties. This review highlights the significance of various microscopic techniques incorporating the literature details that help characterize biopolymers and their derivatives.
biopolymers, microstructures, nanostructures, surface morphology, filler dispersion, chemical composition, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy