Field demonstration of enhanced removal of chlorinated solvents in groundwater using biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron
The application of biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (biochar-nZVI) was successfully implemented in a field demonstration for the first time. To overcome the significant shortcomings of nZVI agglomeration for in-situ groundwater remediation, biochar-nZVI was injected into groundwater using direct-push and water pressure driven packer techniques for a site impacted by chlorinated solvents in the North China Plain. The field demonstration comprising two-step injections was implemented to demonstrate the effectiveness of nZVI and biochar-nZVI respectively. The outcome of the demonstration revealed a sharp reduction of contaminant concentrations of chlorinated solvents in 24 h following the first injection of nZVI, but the rebound of the concentrations of these contaminants in groundwater has occurred within the next two weeks. However, application of biochar-nZVI greatly enhanced the removal of chlorinated solvents in groundwater over the longer period of 42 days. The enhanced removal of chlorinated solvents in groundwater by biochar-nZVI is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of adsorption and reduction. The adsorption by biochar significantly reduced the level of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Overall increases in ferrous iron and chloride concentrations after the injections indicated that the reduction has occurred during the removal of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. In summary, biochar-supported nZVI could be potentially used for the effective remediation of chlorinated solvents in groundwater.
Biochars, Chlorinated solvents, Field demonstration, In situ groundwater remediation, Nanoscale zero-valent iron