Biological effects of four iron-containing nanoremediation materials on the green alga Chlamydomonas sp.

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Elsevier Inc.
As nanoremediation strategies for in-situ groundwater treatment extend beyond nanoiron-based applications to adsorption and oxidation, ecotoxicological evaluations of newly developed materials are required. The biological effects of four new materials with different iron (Fe) speciations ([i] FerMEG12 - pristine flake-like milled Fe(0) nanoparticles (nZVI), [ii] Carbo-Iron® - Fe(0)-nanoclusters containing activated carbon (AC) composite, [iii] Trap-Ox® Fe-BEA35 (Fe-zeolite) - Fe-doped zeolite, and [iv] Nano-Goethite - ‘pure’ FeOOH) were studied using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas sp. as a model test system. Algal growth rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, efficiency of photosystem II, membrane integrity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed following exposure to 10, 50 and 500 mg L−1 of the particles for 2 h and 24 h. The particles had a concentration-, material- and time-dependent effect on Chlamydomonas sp., with increased algal growth rate after 24 h. Conversely, significant intracellular ROS levels were detected after 2 h, with much lower levels after 24 h. All Fe-nanomaterials displayed similar Z-average sizes and zeta-potentials at 2 h and 24 h. Effects on Chlamydomonas sp. decreased in the order FerMEG12 > Carbo-Iron® > Fe-zeolite > Nano-Goethite. Ecotoxicological studies were challenged due to some particle properties, i.e. dark colour, effect of constituents and a tendency to agglomerate, especially at high concentrations. All particles exhibited potential to induce significant toxicity at high concentrations (500 mg L−1), though such concentrations would rapidly decrease to mg or µg L−1 in aquatic environments, levels harmless to Chlamydomonas sp. The presented findings contribute to the practical usage of particle-based nanoremediation in environmental restoration.
Biological effect, FerMEG12, Carbo&#8208, Iron, Trap-Ox Fe-zeolite, Nano&#8208, Goethite, Chlamydomonas sp.